Dietary Reference Intake

System of nutrition recommendations from the National Academy of Medicine (NAM) of the National Academies (United States).

- Dietary Reference Intake

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As a pill

Dietary supplement

Manufactured product intended to supplement one's diet by taking a pill, capsule, tablet, powder, or liquid.

Manufactured product intended to supplement one's diet by taking a pill, capsule, tablet, powder, or liquid.

As a pill
As a capsule
As a tablet
As a softgel capsule used for fish oil or large amounts of vitamin E
As a shake and bottled powder
Production of cod liver oil, one of the first dietary supplement products manufactured in the 18th century
Pharmacies and supermarkets in the U.S. sell a large variety of vitamin dietary supplements.
St. John's wort petals used in natural product supplements

The U.S. Institute of Medicine sets tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) for some of the vitamins.

Steam and liquid water are two different forms of the same chemical (pure) substance: water.

Reference Daily Intake

Steam and liquid water are two different forms of the same chemical (pure) substance: water.

The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) used in nutrition labeling on food and dietary supplement products in the U.S. and Canada is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.

A sample nutrition facts label, with instructions from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Nutrition facts label

Label required on most packaged food in many countries, showing what nutrients and other ingredients (to limit and get enough of) are in the food.

Label required on most packaged food in many countries, showing what nutrients and other ingredients (to limit and get enough of) are in the food.

A sample nutrition facts label, with instructions from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
A Canadian Nutrition Label displaying information in both English and French
An example of a Chinese nutrition facts label
A UK nutrition information label, for low-fat yoghurt. A key difference from US labelling is that it always gives values for a set quantity (100 ml or - like here - 100 g), allowing easy comparison between products. Also, fibre is not considered a type of carbohydrate.
A rare example of optional nutrition facts on a label for oranges (in the EU not mandatory for unprocessed fruits)
The original FDA Nutrition Facts label, as of 2006
The new Nutrition Facts label, in use since 2016

These are called Reference Daily Intake (RDI) values and were originally based on the highest 1968 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for each nutrient in order to assure that the needs of all age and sex combinations were met.

Retinol

Vitamin A

Fat-soluble vitamin and an essential nutrient for humans.

Fat-soluble vitamin and an essential nutrient for humans.

Retinol
Typical location of Bitot's spots
Carrots are a rich source of beta-carotene
Vitamin A supplementation coverage rate (children ages 6–59 months), 2014
Retinoids: Tretinoin is all-trans-retinoic acid; initial tradename: Retin-A. Isotretinoin is 13-cis-retinoic acid; initial tradename: Accutane. Etretinate and Acitretin, its non-esterified metabolite, are used orally to treat severe psoriasis.
Vitamin A biosynthesis from β-carotene
β-ionone ring
Frederick Gowland Hopkins, 1929 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine
George Wald, 1967 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine

The US National Academy of Medicine updated Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) in 2001 for vitamin A, which included Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs).

Foods high in magnesium (an example of a nutrient)

Lydia Roberts

Pioneering nutritionist in childhood nutrition, especially in creating government nutrition standards like the Recommended Dietary Allowances of minerals and vitamins.

Pioneering nutritionist in childhood nutrition, especially in creating government nutrition standards like the Recommended Dietary Allowances of minerals and vitamins.

Foods high in magnesium (an example of a nutrient)

During her time as chair, she also served on the committee for creating the Recommended Daily Allowances, the suggested daily intake of nutrients.

Dietary Reference Values

Name of the nutritional requirements systems used by the United Kingdom Department of Health and the European Union's European Food Safety Authority.

Name of the nutritional requirements systems used by the United Kingdom Department of Health and the European Union's European Food Safety Authority.

RNI is not the same as RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) or GDA, although they are often similar.

A 24 USfloz energy drink with 330 kilocalories

Calorie

About the unit of energy.

About the unit of energy.

A 24 USfloz energy drink with 330 kilocalories

It is generally used in publications and package labels to express the energy value of foods in per serving or per weight, recommended dietary caloric intake, metabolic rates, etc.

Molar volume vs. pressure for α iron at room temperature

Iron

Chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26.

Chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26.

Molar volume vs. pressure for α iron at room temperature
Low-pressure phase diagram of pure iron
Magnetization curves of 9 ferromagnetic materials, showing saturation. 1.Sheet steel, 2.Silicon steel, 3.Cast steel, 4.Tungsten steel, 5.Magnet steel, 6.Cast iron, 7.Nickel, 8.Cobalt, 9.Magnetite
A polished and chemically etched piece of an iron meteorite, believed to be similar in composition to the Earth's metallic core, showing individual crystals of the iron-nickel alloy (Widmanstatten pattern)
Ochre path in Roussillon.
Banded iron formation in McKinley Park, Minnesota.
Pourbaix diagram of iron
Hydrated iron(III) chloride (ferric chloride)
Comparison of colors of solutions of ferrate (left) and permanganate (right)
Blue-green iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate
The two enantiomorphs of the ferrioxalate ion
Crystal structure of iron(II) oxalate dihydrate, showing iron (gray), oxygen (red), carbon (black), and hydrogen (white) atoms.
Blood-red positive thiocyanate test for iron(III)
Iron penta- carbonyl
Prussian blue
Iron harpoon head from Greenland. The iron edge covers a narwhal tusk harpoon using meteorite iron from the Cape York meteorite, one of the largest iron meteorites known.
The symbol for Mars has been used since antiquity to represent iron.
The iron pillar of Delhi is an example of the iron extraction and processing methodologies of early India.
Iron sickle from Ancient Greece.
Coalbrookdale by Night, 1801. Blast furnaces light the iron making town of Coalbrookdale.
"Gold gab ich für Eisen" – "I gave gold for iron". German-American brooch from WWI.
Iron powder
Iron furnace in Columbus, Ohio, 1922
17th century Chinese illustration of workers at a blast furnace, making wrought iron from pig iron
How iron was extracted in the 19th century
This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production.
A pot of molten iron being used to make steel
Iron-carbon phase diagram
Photon mass attenuation coefficient for iron.
Structure of Heme b; in the protein additional ligand(s) would be attached to Fe.
A heme unit of human carboxyhemoglobin, showing the carbonyl ligand at the apical position, trans to the histidine residue

As for safety, the IOM also sets Tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) for vitamins and minerals when evidence is sufficient.

Keggin structure of the phosphomolybdate anion (P[Mo12O40]3−), an example of a polyoxometalate

Molybdenum

Chemical element with the symbol Mo and atomic number 42 which is located in period 5 and group 6.

Chemical element with the symbol Mo and atomic number 42 which is located in period 5 and group 6.

Keggin structure of the phosphomolybdate anion (P[Mo12O40]3−), an example of a polyoxometalate
Molybdenite on quartz
World production trend
A plate of molybdenum copper alloy
Structure of the FeMoco active site of nitrogenase.
The molybdenum cofactor (pictured) is composed of a molybdenum-free organic complex called molybdopterin, which has bound an oxidized molybdenum(VI) atom through adjacent sulfur (or occasionally selenium) atoms. Except for the ancient nitrogenases, all known Mo-using enzymes use this cofactor.

If there is not sufficient information to establish EARs and RDAs, an estimate designated Adequate Intake (AI) is used instead.

Electrolytically refined manganese chips and a 1 cm3 cube

Manganese

Chemical element with the symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

Chemical element with the symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

Electrolytically refined manganese chips and a 1 cm3 cube
Manganese(II) chloride crystals – the pale pink color of Mn(II) salts is due to a spin-forbidden 3d transition.
Aqueous solution of KMnO4 illustrating the deep purple of Mn(VII) as it occurs in permanganate
Some of the cave paintings in Lascaux, France, use manganese-based pigments.
Credit for first isolating manganese is usually given to Johan Gottlieb Gahn.
Percentage of manganese output in 2006 by countries
Process flow diagram for a manganese refining circuit.
U.S. M1917 combat helmet, a variant of Brodie helmet, made from Hadfield steel manganese alloy.
World-War-II-era 5-cent coin (1942-5 identified by mint mark P, D or S above dome) made from a 56% copper-35% silver-9% manganese alloy
Reactive center of arginase with boronic acid inhibitor – the manganese atoms are shown in yellow.
Molecular model of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT)

For manganese there was not sufficient information to set EARs and RDAs, so needs are described as estimates for Adequate Intakes (AIs).