Dietary fiber

fiberdietary fibresoluble fiberfibreroughageinsoluble fibersolublehigh fiber dietHigh residue dietfibers
Dietary fiber (British spelling fibre) or roughage is the portion of plant-derived food that cannot be completely broken down by human digestive enzymes.wikipedia
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Inulin

(2,1-beta-D-fructosyl) n F12 Inulin
Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides and other plant components such as cellulose, resistant starch, resistant dextrins, inulin, lignins, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans, and oligosaccharides. Prebiotic soluble fiber products, like those containing inulin or oligosaccharides, may contribute to relief from inflammatory bowel disease, as in Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and Clostridium difficile, due in part to the short-chain fatty acids produced with subsequent anti-inflammatory actions upon the bowel.
The inulins belong to a class of dietary fibers known as fructans.

Cellulose

cellulolyticcellulosiccellulose ester
Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides and other plant components such as cellulose, resistant starch, resistant dextrins, inulin, lignins, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans, and oligosaccharides.
In human nutrition, cellulose is a non-digestible constituent of insoluble dietary fiber, acting as a hydrophilic bulking agent for feces and potentially aiding in defecation.

Pectin

pectinspecticRhamnogalacturonan
Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides and other plant components such as cellulose, resistant starch, resistant dextrins, inulin, lignins, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans, and oligosaccharides.
It is also used in dessert fillings, medicines, sweets, as a stabilizer in fruit juices and milk drinks, and as a source of dietary fiber.

Human gastrointestinal microbiota

gut floragut microbiotaintestinal flora
As a prebiotic fermentable fiber, its metabolism by gut flora yields short-chain fatty acids (see below) which increase absorption of calcium, magnesium, and iron, resulting from upregulation of mineral-transporting genes and their membrane transport proteins within the colon wall.
Some human gut microorganisms benefit the host by fermenting dietary fiber into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetic acid and butyric acid, which are then absorbed by the host.

Prebiotic (nutrition)

prebioticprebioticspre
Prebiotic soluble fiber products, like those containing inulin or oligosaccharides, may contribute to relief from inflammatory bowel disease, as in Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and Clostridium difficile, due in part to the short-chain fatty acids produced with subsequent anti-inflammatory actions upon the bowel.
Dietary prebiotics are typically nondigestible fiber compounds that pass undigested through the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract and stimulate the growth or activity of advantageous bacteria that colonize the large bowel by acting as substrate for them.

Starch

starcheswheat starchrice starch
Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides and other plant components such as cellulose, resistant starch, resistant dextrins, inulin, lignins, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans, and oligosaccharides.
Raw starch granules resist digestion by human enzymes and do not break down into glucose in the small intestine - they reach the large intestine instead and function as prebiotic dietary fiber.

Wheat

Triticumcorndwarf wheat
When eaten as the whole grain, wheat is a source of multiple nutrients and dietary fiber.

Resistant starch

Resistant starch RS3
In the late 20th century, only lignin and some polysaccharides were known to satisfy this definition, but in the early 21st century, resistant starch and oligosaccharides were included as dietary fiber components.
Resistant starch has some of the same physiologic effects as dietary fiber, which is why it functions as a mild laxative and why consuming it in high doses can lead to flatulence.

Chicory

Cichorium intybusBelgian endivechickory
Inulin is typically extracted by manufacturers from enriched plant sources such as chicory roots or Jerusalem artichokes for use in prepared foods.
In the 21st century, inulin, an extract from chicory root, has been used in food manufacturing as a sweetener and source of dietary fiber.

Polydextrose

E1200
It is a food ingredient classified as soluble fiber by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as well as Health Canada,.

Lupinus

lupinlupinelupins
As a food source, they are gluten-free and high in dietary fiber, amino acids, and antioxidants, and they are considered to be prebiotic.

Phaseolus vulgaris

common beanbeanswhite beans
Similar to other beans, the common bean is high in starch, protein, and dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of iron, potassium, selenium, molybdenum, thiamine, vitamin B 6, and folate.

Oat

oatsAvena sativaavenin
The United States FDA allows manufacturers of foods containing 1.7 g per serving of psyllium husk soluble fiber or 0.75 g of oat or barley soluble fiber as beta-glucans to claim that regular consumption may reduce the risk of heart disease.
In a 100 gram serving, oats provide 389 kcal and are a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of protein (34% DV), dietary fiber (44% DV), several B vitamins and numerous dietary minerals, especially manganese (233% DV) (table).

Vegetable

vegetablessalad vegetablewild vegetables
Vegetables can be eaten either raw or cooked and play an important role in human nutrition, being mostly low in fat and carbohydrates, but high in vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber.

Soybean

soysoybeansGlycine max
Soybeans are an exceptional source of essential nutrients, providing in a 100 gram serving (raw, for reference) high contents of the Daily Value (DV) especially for protein (36% DV), dietary fiber (37%), iron (121%), manganese (120%), phosphorus (101%) and several B vitamins, including folate (94%) (table).

Large intestine

coloncolorectallarge bowel
Viscous fibers – such as beta-glucan and psyllium – thicken the fecal mass. Fermentable fibers – such as resistant starch and inulin – feed the bacteria and microbiota of the large intestine, and are metabolized to yield short-chain fatty acids, which have diverse roles in gastrointestinal health.
At this point some electrolytes like sodium, magnesium, and chloride are left as well as indigestible parts of ingested food (e.g., a large part of ingested amylose, starch which has been shielded from digestion heretofore, and dietary fiber, which is largely indigestible carbohydrate in either soluble or insoluble form).

Type 2 diabetes

diabetes mellitus type 2type II diabetestype 2 diabetes mellitus
Health benefit from dietary fiber and whole grains may include a decreased risk of death and lower rates of coronary heart disease, colon cancer, and type 2 diabetes.
A 2019 review found evidence of benefit from dietary fiber.

Legume

pulseslegumesleguminous
Legumes are a significant source of protein, dietary fiber, carbohydrates and dietary minerals; for example, a 100 gram serving of cooked chickpeas contains 18 percent of the Daily Value (DV) for protein, 30 percent DV for dietary fiber, 43 percent DV for folate and 52 percent DV for manganese.

Coronary artery disease

coronary heart diseaseischemic heart diseaseischaemic heart disease
Health benefit from dietary fiber and whole grains may include a decreased risk of death and lower rates of coronary heart disease, colon cancer, and type 2 diabetes.
Evidence also suggests that the Mediterranean diet and a high fiber diet lower the risk.

Whole grain

whole wheatwhole-grainwhole grains
Dietary fibers are found in fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
Whole grains are a source of carbohydrates, multiple nutrients and dietary fiber.

Dietary supplement

dietary supplementsnutritional supplementnutritional supplements
Dietary fiber is found in plants, typically eaten whole, raw or cooked, although fiber can be added to make dietary supplements and fiber-rich processed foods.
The class of nutrient compounds includes vitamins, minerals, fiber, fatty acids and amino acids.

Oligosaccharide

oligosaccharidesoligo-complex carbohydrates
Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides and other plant components such as cellulose, resistant starch, resistant dextrins, inulin, lignins, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans, and oligosaccharides. Prebiotic soluble fiber products, like those containing inulin or oligosaccharides, may contribute to relief from inflammatory bowel disease, as in Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and Clostridium difficile, due in part to the short-chain fatty acids produced with subsequent anti-inflammatory actions upon the bowel. In the late 20th century, only lignin and some polysaccharides were known to satisfy this definition, but in the early 21st century, resistant starch and oligosaccharides were included as dietary fiber components.
Oligosaccharides are a component of fibre from plant tissue.

Irritable bowel syndrome

IBSSplenic flexure syndromeSplenic-flexure syndrome
Soluble fiber supplements may be beneficial for alleviating symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, such as diarrhea or constipation and abdominal discomfort.
Dietary measures include increasing soluble fiber intake, a gluten-free diet, or a short-term diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs).

Western pattern diet

Western dietStandard American DietWestern diets
Medical authorities, such as the Mayo Clinic, recommend adding fiber-rich products to the Standard American Diet (SAD) which is rich in processed and artificially sweetened foods, with minimal intake of vegetables and legumes.
Various foods and food processing procedures that had been introduced during the Neolithic and Industrial Periods had fundamentally altered 7 nutritional characteristics of ancestral hominin diets: glycemic load, fatty acid composition, macronutrient composition, micronutrient density, acid-base balance, sodium-potassium ratio, and fiber content.

Prune

prunesDried Plumdried plums
For example, plums and prunes have a thick skin covering a juicy pulp.
Prunes contain dietary fiber (about 7% of weight; table) which may provide laxative effects.