Dieterich Buxtehude

Dietrich BuxtehudeBuxtehudeD. BuxtehudeBuxtehude, DieterichBUXTEHUDE, DIET[E]RICHDiderich Buxtehude
Dieterich Buxtehude (Diderich, ; c. 1637/39 – 9 May 1707) was a Danish-German organist and composer of the Baroque period.wikipedia
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Baroque music

BaroqueBaroque eraBaroque period
Dieterich Buxtehude (Diderich, ; c. 1637/39 – 9 May 1707) was a Danish-German organist and composer of the Baroque period.
Key composers of the Baroque era include Johann Sebastian Bach, Antonio Vivaldi, George Frideric Handel, Claudio Monteverdi, Domenico Scarlatti, Alessandro Scarlatti, Henry Purcell, Georg Philipp Telemann, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Arcangelo Corelli, Tomaso Albinoni, François Couperin, Giuseppe Tartini, Heinrich Schütz, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Dieterich Buxtehude, and Johann Pachelbel.

Organ repertoire

organ musicorganliterature
His organ works represent a central part of the standard organ repertoire and are frequently performed at recitals and in church services.
The North German Praeludium (an important form consisting of alternating sections of free material written in the largely misunderstood stylus phantasticus and fugal material) reached its zenith in Dieterich Buxtehude, informed by Matthias Weckmann and Heinrich Scheidemann (influenced most strongly by Jan Peeterszoon Sweelinck and by the Italian school transported to North Germany by Heinrich Schütz and Samuel Scheidt).

Johann Sebastian Bach

BachJ.S. BachJ. S. Bach
He composed in a wide variety of vocal and instrumental idioms, and his style strongly influenced many composers, including Johann Sebastian Bach. His post in the free Imperial city of Lübeck afforded him considerable latitude in his musical career, and his autonomy was a model for the careers of later Baroque masters such as George Frideric Handel, Johann Mattheson, Georg Philipp Telemann and Johann Sebastian Bach.
Stauffer reports the discovery in 2005 of the organ tablatures that Bach wrote, while still in his teens, of works by Reincken and Dieterich Buxtehude, showing "a disciplined, methodical, well-trained teenager deeply committed to learning his craft".

Organist

cathedral organistconcert organistorganists
Dieterich Buxtehude (Diderich, ; c. 1637/39 – 9 May 1707) was a Danish-German organist and composer of the Baroque period.
Many composers, therefore, are equally known for their performance talents, some historical examples being Johann Sebastian Bach, Dieterich Buxtehude, Felix Mendelssohn, Franz Liszt, César Franck, Camille Saint-Saëns, Charles-Marie Widor, Louis Vierne, Marcel Dupré and Maurice Duruflé, as well as improvisers such as Charles Tournemire, Pierre Cochereau, Pierre Pincemaille or Thierry Escaich.

Lübeck

Lübeck, GermanyLubeckHanseatic City of Lübeck
Buxtehude's last post, from 1668, was at the Marienkirche, Lübeck which had two organs, a large one for big services and a small one for devotionals and funerals.
In 1668, his daughter Anna Margarethe married the great Danish-German composer Dieterich Buxtehude, who was the organist at the Marienkirche in Lübeck until at least 1703.

List of compositions by Dieterich Buxtehude

BuxWVBuxtehude-Werke-VerzeichnisBuxW
Johann Christoph Bach's manuscript is particularly important, as it includes the three known ostinato works and the famous Prelude and Chaconne in C major, BuxWV 137.
The Buxtehude-Werke-Verzeichnis ("Buxtehude Works Catalogue", commonly abbreviated to BuxWV) is the catalogue and the numbering system used to identify musical works by the German-Danish Baroque composer Dieterich Buxtehude (c.

St. Mary's Church, Lübeck

MarienkircheSt. Mary's ChurchMarienkirche, Lübeck
Buxtehude's last post, from 1668, was at the Marienkirche, Lübeck which had two organs, a large one for big services and a small one for devotionals and funerals.
Among the artefacts destroyed was the famous Totentanzorgel (Danse Macabre organ), an instrument played by Dieterich Buxtehude and probably Johann Sebastian Bach.

George Frideric Handel

HandelGeorg Friedrich HändelHändel
His post in the free Imperial city of Lübeck afforded him considerable latitude in his musical career, and his autonomy was a model for the careers of later Baroque masters such as George Frideric Handel, Johann Mattheson, Georg Philipp Telemann and Johann Sebastian Bach.
Among the chief composers represented in this exercise book were Johann Krieger, an "old master" in the fugue and prominent organ composer, Johann Caspar Kerll, a representative of the "southern style" after his teacher Frescobaldi and imitated later by Handel, Johann Jakob Froberger, an "internationalist" also closely studied by Buxtehude and Bach, and Georg Muffat, whose amalgam of French and Italian styles and his synthesis of musical forms influenced Handel.

German organ schools

North German schoolNorth German organ schoolNorth German organ tradition
These preludes, together with pieces by Nicolaus Bruhns, represent the highest point in the evolution of the north German organ prelude, and the so-called stylus phantasticus. The ornamented cantus firmus in these pieces represents a significant difference between the north German and the south German schools; Johann Pachelbel and his pupils would almost always leave the chorale melody unornamented.
Dieterich Buxtehude's work represents the pinnacle of this tradition; the praeludia form the core of his work.

Fugue

fugalfugatodouble fugue
They are usually either fugues or pieces written in fugal manner; all make heavy use of pedal and are idiomatic to the organ.
The famous fugue composer Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750) shaped his own works after those of Johann Jakob Froberger (1616–1667), Johann Pachelbel (1653–1706), Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583–1643), Dieterich Buxtehude (c.

Chaconne

ciacconaCiaconnaChaconni
Johann Christoph Bach's manuscript is particularly important, as it includes the three known ostinato works and the famous Prelude and Chaconne in C major, BuxWV 137. The three ostinato bass works Buxtehude composed—two chaconnes (BuxWV 159–160) and a passacaglia (BuxWV 161)—not only represent, along with Pachelbel's six organ chaconnes, a shift from the traditional chaconne style, but are also the first truly developed north German contributions to the development of the genre.

Johann Pachelbel

PachelbelPachelbel, JohannJohann Pachebel
The ornamented cantus firmus in these pieces represents a significant difference between the north German and the south German schools; Johann Pachelbel and his pupils would almost always leave the chorale melody unornamented.
His music is less virtuosic and less adventurous harmonically than that of Dieterich Buxtehude, although, like Buxtehude, Pachelbel experimented with different ensembles and instrumental combinations in his chamber music and, most importantly, his vocal music, much of which features exceptionally rich instrumentation.

Helsingborg

Helsingborg, SwedenRååHälsingborg
Scholars dispute both the year and country of Dieterich's birth, although most now accept that he was born in 1637 in Helsingborg, Skåne, at the time part of Denmark (but now part of Sweden).

Composer

music composercomposedmusic
Dieterich Buxtehude (Diderich, ; c. 1637/39 – 9 May 1707) was a Danish-German organist and composer of the Baroque period.
Some of the best-known composers from the Baroque era include Claudio Monteverdi, Heinrich Schütz, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Dieterich Buxtehude, Arcangelo Corelli, Henry Purcell, François Couperin, Antonio Vivaldi, Georg Philipp Telemann, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel.

Passacaglia in D minor, BuxWV 161

BuxWV 161passacaglia (BuxWV 161)Passacaglia in D minor
The three ostinato bass works Buxtehude composed—two chaconnes (BuxWV 159–160) and a passacaglia (BuxWV 161)—not only represent, along with Pachelbel's six organ chaconnes, a shift from the traditional chaconne style, but are also the first truly developed north German contributions to the development of the genre.
Passacaglia in D minor (BuxWV 161) is an organ work by Dieterich Buxtehude.

Passacaglia

pasacallePassacaillepasacalles
The three ostinato bass works Buxtehude composed—two chaconnes (BuxWV 159–160) and a passacaglia (BuxWV 161)—not only represent, along with Pachelbel's six organ chaconnes, a shift from the traditional chaconne style, but are also the first truly developed north German contributions to the development of the genre.
Some examples are the organ passacaglias of Dieterich Buxtehude, Johann Pachelbel, Sigfrid Karg-Elert, Johann Caspar Kerll, Daniel Gregory Mason, Georg Muffat, Gottlieb Muffat, Johann Kuhnau, Juan Bautista Cabanilles, Bernardo Pasquini, Max Reger, Ralph Vaughan Williams (Passacaglia on B–G–C, 1933), and Leo Sowerby.

Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern

8359Wie schön leucht't uns der MorgensternHow Brightly Shines the Morning Star
Examples include fantasias on the [hymn]s Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ BuxWV 188, Nun freut euch, lieben Christen g'mein BuxWV 210, Nun lob, mein Seel, den Herren BuxWV 213 and Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern, BuxWV 223.
Dieterich Buxtehude used it (BuxWV223), as did Johann Kuhnau.

Abendmusik

evening concerts
In 1673 he reorganized a series of evening musical performances, initiated by Tunder, known as Abendmusik, which attracted musicians from diverse places and remained a feature of the church until 1810.
Under his successor Dieterich Buxtehude (organist at Lübeck from 1668 until 1707), these concerts came to prominence and were established on the five Sundays preceding Christmas.

Dieterich Buxtehude – Opera Omnia

Opera Omnia
Dieterich Buxtehude – Opera Omnia is a project to record the complete works (in Latin: opera omnia) of the German Baroque composer Dieterich Buxtehude, completed in October 2014 and released on Challenge Records.

Prelude (music)

preludepreludesIntrada
Some of the praeludia also make use of ostinato models.
Preludes by northern German composers such as Dieterich Buxtehude (c.1637–1707) and Nikolaus Bruhns (c.1665–1697) combined sections of free improvised passages with parts in strict contrapuntal writing (usually brief fugues).

Organ tablature

tablatureBuxheim Organ Booktablatures
The former includes several autographs, both in German organ tablature and in score.
Portions of Johann Sebastian Bach's Orgelbüchlein are written in tablature, as are a great deal of the surviving manuscripts of the organ works of Dieterich Buxtehude and other north German organ composers of the Baroque era.

Georg Böhm

BöhmBohmGeorg Boehm
These pieces are not as important for the development of the form and not as advanced as Pachelbel's or Böhm's contributions to the genre.
Böhm may have also heard Vincent Lübeck in the nearby Stade, or possibly even Dieterich Buxtehude in Lübeck, which was also close.

Helga Schauerte-Maubouet

Schauerte has recorded the complete organ works of Jehan Alain, Dietrich Buxtehude, and J. S. Bach (in process), portraits of Buttstett, Corrette, Reger, Boëllmann, Dubois and Langlais, comprising some thirty recordings).

Franz Tunder

Tunder
There he succeeded Franz Tunder and followed in many of the footsteps of his predecessor.
His successor was Dieterich Buxtehude.

Nicolaus Bruhns

BruhnsNikolaus BruhnsNicholas Bruhns
These preludes, together with pieces by Nicolaus Bruhns, represent the highest point in the evolution of the north German organ prelude, and the so-called stylus phantasticus.
The two brothers also studied the organ and composition, Georg under Bernhard Olffen, organist of St. Aegidien, and Nicolaus under Dieterich Buxtehude.