Differential steering

Differential steering is the means of steering a land vehicle by applying more or less drive torque to one side of the vehicle than the other.wikipedia
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Steering

four-wheel steeringfour wheel steeringsteer
Differential steering is the means of steering a land vehicle by applying more or less drive torque to one side of the vehicle than the other.
Tracked vehicles such as bulldozers and tanks usually employ differential steering—that is, the tracks are made to move at different speeds or even in opposite directions, using clutches and brakes, to bring about a change of course or direction.

Skid-steer loader

skid steer loaderskid steerskid-steer
Differential steering is the primary means of steering tracked vehicles, such as tanks and bulldozers, is also used in certain wheeled vehicles commonly known as skid-steer, and even implemented in some automobiles, where it is called torque vectoring, to augment steering by changing wheel direction relative to the vehicle. This system is often employed on skid-steer loaders and zero-turn mowers.
Turning is accomplished by differential steering, in which the left and right wheel pairs are operated at different speeds, and the machine turns by skidding or dragging its fixed-orientation wheels across the ground.

Torque vectoring

Active Yaw ControlTorque Vectoring BrakeDynamic Performance Control
Differential steering is the primary means of steering tracked vehicles, such as tanks and bulldozers, is also used in certain wheeled vehicles commonly known as skid-steer, and even implemented in some automobiles, where it is called torque vectoring, to augment steering by changing wheel direction relative to the vehicle.

Torque steer

Torque steering
Differential steering is distinct from torque steer, which is usually considered a negative side effect of drive-train design choices.
*Differential steering

Differential wheeled robot

differential wheeledwheeled robot
It is often implemented in wheeled robots.
Virtually all consumer robots on the market today use differential steering primarily for its low cost and simplicity.

Zero-turn mower

zero turnzero turning radius lawn mowersZero-turn
This system is often employed on skid-steer loaders and zero-turn mowers.
For most zero-turn mowers today, steering is simply changing the speeds of the drive tires, a method called differential steering.

Amphibious ATV

amphibious all-terrain vehicle
Directional control is accomplished through differential steering - just as on a tracked vehicle - either by braking the wheels on the side where you want to turn, or by applying more throttle to the wheels on the opposite side.

Tank steering systems

complex steering mechanismscontrolled differentialMerritt-Brown triple differential
*Tank steering systems

Vehicle

vehiclesvehicularroad vehicle
Differential steering is the means of steering a land vehicle by applying more or less drive torque to one side of the vehicle than the other.

Continuous track

trackedcaterpillar tracktracked vehicle
Differential steering is the primary means of steering tracked vehicles, such as tanks and bulldozers, is also used in certain wheeled vehicles commonly known as skid-steer, and even implemented in some automobiles, where it is called torque vectoring, to augment steering by changing wheel direction relative to the vehicle.

Tank

tankstank commanderarmor
Differential steering is the primary means of steering tracked vehicles, such as tanks and bulldozers, is also used in certain wheeled vehicles commonly known as skid-steer, and even implemented in some automobiles, where it is called torque vectoring, to augment steering by changing wheel direction relative to the vehicle.

Bulldozer

bulldozersbulldozedbulldoze
Differential steering is the primary means of steering tracked vehicles, such as tanks and bulldozers, is also used in certain wheeled vehicles commonly known as skid-steer, and even implemented in some automobiles, where it is called torque vectoring, to augment steering by changing wheel direction relative to the vehicle.

Richard Hornsby & Sons

HornsbyHornsby & SonsHornsby Chain Tractor
A British agricultural company, Hornsby in Grantham, developed a continuous track, which was patented in 1905.

Grantham

Grantham, LincolnshireGrantham, EnglandMayor of Grantham
A British agricultural company, Hornsby in Grantham, developed a continuous track, which was patented in 1905.

Clutch

Wetwet clutchdry clutch
In clutch-brake differential steering, power is disconnected to one side or the other with a clutch, and the unpowered side may also have a brake applied to tighten the turn.

Brake

brakesbrakingbraking system
In clutch-brake differential steering, power is disconnected to one side or the other with a clutch, and the unpowered side may also have a brake applied to tighten the turn.

Differential (mechanical device)

differentialdifferential geardifferentials
In brake-differential steering, power is applied to both sides through a differential and a brake is applied to one side or the other.

Pinion

pinionscog wheelpinion gear
In controlled-differential steering, pinions within the differential are locked causing one side to rotate faster than the other.

Turning radius

turning circleturn radiusturning radii
A disadvantage is that only one turning radius can be performed efficiently.

Oliver Farm Equipment Company

OliverCleveland Tractor CompanyHart-Parr
This method was developed by the Cleveland Tractor Company in 1921 and called the Cletrac Regenerative Steering System.

Gear train

gear ratiospeedreduction gear
In geared differential steering, two complete gearboxes are used to provide power to either side, and one distinct turning radius can be derived from each gear ratio combination.

Epicyclic gearing

epicyclicepicyclic gearboxplanetary
In the Maybach double-differential, power is transmitted through a single main transmission and then through an epicycle gear final drive on each side.

Panther tank

PantherPanthersPanzer V
This system was implemented on German Panther tanks during World War II.

Idler-wheel

idleridler pulleyidler wheel
In this design, however, the average drive speed of the tracks is maintained by adding an idler to apply the opposite torque to the epicycle gear on other side of the turn.

Hydraulic drive system

hydraulichydraulic drivehydraulic systems
Hydraulic differential steering consists of a hydraulic drive system with one hydraulic pump and two hydraulic motors, one for each side.