Digital Research

DRDigital Research, Inc.Digital InitiativesDigital Research CDigital Research Inc.Digital Research JapanDigital Research, IncDR EuropeDr HaloEDIX
Digital Research, Inc. (DR or DRI) was a company created by Gary Kildall to market and develop his CP/M operating system and related 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit systems like MP/M, Concurrent DOS, FlexOS, Multiuser DOS, DOS Plus, DR DOS and GEM.wikipedia
243 Related Articles

CP/M

CP/M-80CP/M operating systemBDOS
Digital Research, Inc. (DR or DRI) was a company created by Gary Kildall to market and develop his CP/M operating system and related 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit systems like MP/M, Concurrent DOS, FlexOS, Multiuser DOS, DOS Plus, DR DOS and GEM.
CP/M, originally standing for Control Program/Monitor and later Control Program for Microcomputers, (or Control Program/Micro ) is a mass-market operating system created in 1974 for Intel 8080/85-based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc.

Gary Kildall

KnowledgeSetDorothy KildallComputer Connections: People, Places, and Events in the Evolution of the Personal Computer Industry
Digital Research, Inc. (DR or DRI) was a company created by Gary Kildall to market and develop his CP/M operating system and related 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit systems like MP/M, Concurrent DOS, FlexOS, Multiuser DOS, DOS Plus, DR DOS and GEM.
Gary Arlen Kildall (May 19, 1942 – July 11, 1994) was an American computer scientist and microcomputer entrepreneur who created the CP/M operating system and founded Digital Research, Inc. (DRI).

DOS Plus

DOS Plus 1.2DOS Plus 1.1DOS Plus 1.0
Digital Research, Inc. (DR or DRI) was a company created by Gary Kildall to market and develop his CP/M operating system and related 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit systems like MP/M, Concurrent DOS, FlexOS, Multiuser DOS, DOS Plus, DR DOS and GEM.
DOS Plus (erroneously also known as DOS+) was the first operating system developed by Digital Research's OEM Support Group in Newbury, Berkshire, UK, first released in 1985.

CP/M-86

Personal CP/M-86CP/M-86 1.1S5-DOS
The first 16-bit system was CP/M-86 (1981, adapted to the IBM PC in early 1982), which was meant as direct competitor to MS-DOS.
CP/M-86 was a version of the CP/M operating system that Digital Research (DR) made for the Intel 8086 and Intel 8088.

MS-DOS

DOSMS-DOS 5.0MS-DOS 6.0
The first 16-bit system was CP/M-86 (1981, adapted to the IBM PC in early 1982), which was meant as direct competitor to MS-DOS. When the IBM PC arrived in late 1981, it came with PC DOS, an OEM version of MS-DOS, which was developed from 86-DOS, which Microsoft had acquired for this purpose.
Development of 86-DOS took only six weeks, as it was basically a clone of Digital Research's CP/M (for 8080/Z80 processors), ported to run on 8086 processors and with two notable differences compared to CP/M; an improved disk sector buffering logic, and the introduction of FAT12 instead of the CP/M filesystem.

MP/M

Concurrent CP/MConcurrent CP/M-86MP/M-86
Digital Research, Inc. (DR or DRI) was a company created by Gary Kildall to market and develop his CP/M operating system and related 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit systems like MP/M, Concurrent DOS, FlexOS, Multiuser DOS, DOS Plus, DR DOS and GEM.
MP/M (Multi-Programming Monitor Control Program ) is a discontinued multi-user version of the CP/M operating system, created by Digital Research developer Tom Rolander in 1979.

Pacific Grove, California

Pacific GrovePacific Grove, CAthe city of Pacific Grove
Digital Research was based in Pacific Grove, California.
In the 1980s, Pacific Grove was the site of the pioneering microcomputer software company Digital Research.

Naval Postgraduate School

Navy Postgraduate SchoolU.S. Naval Postgraduate SchoolNaval Post Graduate School
In 1972, Gary Kildall, an instructor at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, began working at Intel as a consultant under the business name Microcomputer Applications Associates (MAA).

File Allocation Table

FATFAT32FAT12
Successive revisions of Concurrent CP/M incorporated MS-DOS API emulation (since 1983), which gradually added more support for DOS applications and the FAT file system.
Known partition IDs for logical sectored FATs include: 0x08 (Commodore MS-DOS 3.x), 0x11 (Leading Edge MS-DOS 3.x), 0x14 (AST MS-DOS 3.x), 0x24 (NEC MS-DOS 3.30 ), 0x56 (AT&T MS-DOS 3.x), 0xE5 (Tandy MS-DOS), 0xF2 (Sperry IT MS-DOS 3.x, Unisys MS-DOS 3.3 – also used by Digital Research DOS Plus 2.1).

FlexOS

4680 OSFlexOS 286IBM 4680 OS
Digital Research, Inc. (DR or DRI) was a company created by Gary Kildall to market and develop his CP/M operating system and related 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit systems like MP/M, Concurrent DOS, FlexOS, Multiuser DOS, DOS Plus, DR DOS and GEM. FlexOS had already been adopted as the basis for Siemens S5-DOS/MT, IBM 4680 OS and 4690 OS, whereas Multiuser DOS evolved further into independent products like Datapac System Manager, IMS REAL/32 and REAL/NG.
It was developed by Digital Research's Flexible Automation Business Unit in Monterey, California since November 1986 and was marketed since January 1987 as a reengineered continuation of Digital Research's Concurrent DOS 286 multiuser multitasking operating system.

Multiuser DOS

Concurrent DOSREAL/32Concurrent DOS 386
Digital Research, Inc. (DR or DRI) was a company created by Gary Kildall to market and develop his CP/M operating system and related 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit systems like MP/M, Concurrent DOS, FlexOS, Multiuser DOS, DOS Plus, DR DOS and GEM. Successive revisions of Concurrent CP/M incorporated MS-DOS API emulation (since 1983), which gradually added more support for DOS applications and the FAT file system. FlexOS had already been adopted as the basis for Siemens S5-DOS/MT, IBM 4680 OS and 4690 OS, whereas Multiuser DOS evolved further into independent products like Datapac System Manager, IMS REAL/32 and REAL/NG.
An evolution of the older Concurrent CP/M-86, Concurrent DOS and Concurrent DOS 386 operating systems, it was originally developed by Digital Research and acquired and further developed by Novell in 1991.

4690 Operating System

4690 OSIBM 4690 OSToshiba 4690 OS
FlexOS had already been adopted as the basis for Siemens S5-DOS/MT, IBM 4680 OS and 4690 OS, whereas Multiuser DOS evolved further into independent products like Datapac System Manager, IMS REAL/32 and REAL/NG.
The original IBM 4680 OS was based on Digital Research's Concurrent DOS 286, a system soon later renamed into FlexOS 286.

Monterey, California

MontereyMonterey, CAMonterrey
In 1972, Gary Kildall, an instructor at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, began working at Intel as a consultant under the business name Microcomputer Applications Associates (MAA).

Graphics Environment Manager

GEMGEMDOSGSX
Digital Research, Inc. (DR or DRI) was a company created by Gary Kildall to market and develop his CP/M operating system and related 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit systems like MP/M, Concurrent DOS, FlexOS, Multiuser DOS, DOS Plus, DR DOS and GEM. They also produced a microcomputer version of the GKS graphics standard (related to NAPLPS) called GSX, and later used this as the basis of their GEM GUI.
GEM (for Graphics Environment Manager) was an operating environment created by Digital Research (DRI) for use with the DOS operating system on Intel 8088 and Motorola 68000 microprocessors.

Environment variable

environmentSETpseudo-environment variable
Pipes were supported, and all named resources could be aliased by setting environment variables.
; :This variable contains the name of the operating system in order to distinguish between different DOS-related operating systems of Digital Research-origin in batch jobs and applications.

Intel 80286

80286286Intel 286
Admitting that it had "lost" the 8088 software market but hoped to succeed with the Intel 80286 and Motorola 68000, by 1984 the company formed a partnership with AT&T Corporation to develop software for Unix System V and sell its own and third-party products in retail stores.
In January 1985, Digital Research previewed the Concurrent DOS 286 1.0 operating system developed in cooperation with Intel.

86-DOS

QDOS86-DOS 0.4286-DOS 1.00
When the IBM PC arrived in late 1981, it came with PC DOS, an OEM version of MS-DOS, which was developed from 86-DOS, which Microsoft had acquired for this purpose.
86-DOS had a command structure and application programming interface that imitated that of Digital Research's CP/M operating system, which made it easy to port programs from the latter.

Graphical Kernel System

GKSISO 8651ISO 8805
They also produced a microcomputer version of the GKS graphics standard (related to NAPLPS) called GSX, and later used this as the basis of their GEM GUI.
GKS formed the basis of Digital Research's GSX and GEM products; the latter was common on the Atari ST and was occasionally seen on PCs particularly in conjunction with Ventura Publisher.

IBM Personal Computer

IBM PCPCIBM-PC
At the time the IBM Personal Computer was being developed, Digital Research's CP/M was the dominant operating system of the day.
Although the company knew that it could not avoid competition from third-party software on proprietary hardware—Digital Research released CP/M-86 for the IBM Displaywriter, for example—it considered using the IBM 801 RISC processor and its operating system, developed at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York.

Microsoft

Microsoft CorporationMicrosoft Corp.MS
Microsoft seized this opportunity to supply an OS, in addition to other software (e.g., BASIC) for the new IBM PC.
After negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft in November 1980 to provide a version of the CP/M OS, which was set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer (IBM PC).

Gordon Eubanks

Compiler Systems
Apart from founder Gary Kildall several notable employees worked at Digital Research, some of which later made important contributions to the IT industry, such as Gordon Eubanks, Tom Rolander, Lee Jay Lorenzen, Don Heiskell, John Meyer, and Ed McCracken.
Gordon Eubanks (born November 7, 1946) is an American microcomputer industry pioneer who worked with Gary Kildall in the early days of Digital Research (DRI).

DR-DOS

DR DOSDR DOS 6.0DR-DOS 7.02
Digital Research, Inc. (DR or DRI) was a company created by Gary Kildall to market and develop his CP/M operating system and related 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit systems like MP/M, Concurrent DOS, FlexOS, Multiuser DOS, DOS Plus, DR DOS and GEM.
It was originally developed by Gary A. Kildall's Digital Research and derived from Concurrent PC DOS 6.0, which was an advanced successor of CP/M-86.

Novell

Novell, Inc.Novell Inc.PGSoft
Digital Research was purchased by Novell in 1991, primarily for Novell to gain access to the operating system line.
Under the leadership of founder Ray Noorda, during the early- to mid-1990s Novell attempted to compete directly with Microsoft by acquiring Digital Research, Unix System Laboratories, WordPerfect, and the Quattro Pro division of Borland.

Caldera (company)

CalderaCaldera, Inc.Bryan Wayne Sparks
Digital Research (and later its successor Caldera) accused Microsoft of announcing vaporware versions of MS-DOS to suppress sales of DR DOS.
Looking for a DOS operating system to bundle with their OpenLinux distribution, Caldera, backed up by The Canopy Group as their largest investor, acquired Novell DOS 7 and other Digital Research assets from Novell on 23 July 1996.

Graphical user interface

GUIgraphicalgraphical interface
They also produced a microcomputer version of the GKS graphics standard (related to NAPLPS) called GSX, and later used this as the basis of their GEM GUI.
These early systems spurred many other GUI efforts, including Lisp machines by Symbolics and other manufacturers, the Apple Lisa (which presented the concept of menu bar and window controls) in 1983, the Apple Macintosh 128K in 1984, and the Atari ST with Digital Research's GEM, and Commodore Amiga in 1985.