Digital audio

digital musicdigitalaudiodigital sounddigital downloaddigitallyaudio datadigital audio recorderaudio interfacedigital recording
Digital audio is sound that has been recorded in, or converted into, digital form.wikipedia
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Audio bit depth

24-bitbit depthresolution
For example, in CD audio, samples are taken 44100 times per second each with 16 bit sample depth.
In digital audio using pulse-code modulation (PCM), bit depth is the number of bits of information in each sample, and it directly corresponds to the resolution of each sample.

Compact Disc Digital Audio

Audio CDCDCD-DA
For example, in CD audio, samples are taken 44100 times per second each with 16 bit sample depth.
The standard also specifies the form of digital audio encoding: 2-channel signed 16-bit Linear PCM sampled at 44,100 Hz.

Sound recording and reproduction

recordingrecordedrecordings
Digital audio is also the name for the entire technology of sound recording and reproduction using audio signals that have been encoded in digital form.
Digital recording and reproduction converts the analog sound signal picked up by the microphone to a digital form by the process of sampling.

Pulse-code modulation

PCMLPCMLinear PCM
In a digital audio system, an analog electrical signal representing the sound is converted with an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) into a digital signal, typically using pulse-code modulation.
It is the standard form of digital audio in computers, compact discs, digital telephony and other digital audio applications.

Podcast

podcastspodcastingpodcaster
Digital audio technologies are used in the recording, manipulation, mass-production, and distribution of sound, including recordings of songs, instrumental pieces, podcasts, sound effects, and other sounds.
A podcast is an episodic series of digital audio files that a user can download in order to listen.

Music download

Digital downloaddownloaddigital
Modern online music distribution depends on digital recording and data compression.
A music download is the digital transfer of music via the Internet into a device capable of decoding and playing it, such as a personal computer, portable media player, MP3 player or smartphone.

Phonograph record

vinyl7LP
Before digital audio, the music industry distributed and sold music by selling physical copies in the form of records and cassette tapes.
By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, and the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991.

Radio broadcasting

radio stationradio stationsstation
The sounds are then stored on an analog medium such as magnetic tape, or transmitted through an analog medium such as a telephone line or radio.
The signal types can be either analog audio or digital audio.

Aliasing

aliasaliasedtemporal aliasing
Analog signals that have not already been bandlimited must be passed through an anti-aliasing filter before conversion, to prevent the aliasing distortion that is caused by audio signals with frequencies higher than the Nyquist frequency (half the sampling rate).
Aliasing can occur in signals sampled in time, for instance digital audio, and is referred to as temporal aliasing.

MP3

.mp3MP3 downloadMP3 files
Audio data compression techniques, such as MP3, Advanced Audio Coding, Ogg Vorbis, or FLAC, are commonly employed to reduce the file size. The MDCT is the basis for most audio coding standards, such as Dolby Digital (AC-3), MP3 (MPEG Layer III), Advanced Audio Coding (AAC), Windows Media Audio (WMA), and Vorbis (Ogg).
MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is a coding format for digital audio.

Advanced Audio Coding

AACAAC-LCMPEG-4 AAC
Audio data compression techniques, such as MP3, Advanced Audio Coding, Ogg Vorbis, or FLAC, are commonly employed to reduce the file size. The MDCT is the basis for most audio coding standards, such as Dolby Digital (AC-3), MP3 (MPEG Layer III), Advanced Audio Coding (AAC), Windows Media Audio (WMA), and Vorbis (Ogg).
Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is an audio coding standard for lossy digital audio compression.

Sampling (signal processing)

sampling ratesamplingsample rate
The ADC runs at a specified sampling rate and converts at a known bit resolution.
Digital audio uses pulse-code modulation and digital signals for sound reproduction.

FLAC

Free Lossless Audio Codec.flacFLAC
Audio data compression techniques, such as MP3, Advanced Audio Coding, Ogg Vorbis, or FLAC, are commonly employed to reduce the file size.
FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec) is an audio coding format for lossless compression of digital audio, and is also the name of the free software project producing the FLAC tools, the reference software package that includes a codec implementation.

Audio and video interfaces and connectors

Audio and video connectorAV connectorA/V
Digital audio can be carried over digital audio interfaces such as AES3 or MADI.
For digital audio and digital video, this can be thought of as defining the physical layer, data link layer, and most or all of the application layer.

AES3

AES/EBUAES-EBU embedded timecodeAES
Digital audio can be carried over digital audio interfaces such as AES3 or MADI.
AES3 (also known as AES/EBU) is a standard for the exchange of digital audio signals between professional audio devices.

MADI

AES10Multichannel Audio Digital Interface
Digital audio can be carried over digital audio interfaces such as AES3 or MADI.
Multichannel Audio Digital Interface (MADI) or AES10 is an Audio Engineering Society (AES) standard that defines the data format and electrical characteristics of an interface that carries multiple channels of digital audio.

Streaming media

streamingstreamedstreaming video
Digital audio can be carried over a network using audio over Ethernet, audio over IP or other streaming media standards and systems.
A client end-user can use their media player to start playing digital video or digital audio content before the entire file has been transmitted.

Audio over Ethernet

Ethernet
Digital audio can be carried over a network using audio over Ethernet, audio over IP or other streaming media standards and systems.
In audio and broadcast engineering, Audio over Ethernet (sometimes AoE—not to be confused with ATA over Ethernet) is the use of an Ethernet-based network to distribute real-time digital audio.

Speech coding

speech encodingspeech codecSpeech
Perceptual coding was first used for speech coding compression, with linear predictive coding (LPC).
Speech coding is an application of data compression of digital audio signals containing speech.

Audio coding format

audio codingaudio coding standardaudio compression format
The MDCT is the basis for most audio coding standards, such as Dolby Digital (AC-3), MP3 (MPEG Layer III), Advanced Audio Coding (AAC), Windows Media Audio (WMA), and Vorbis (Ogg).
An audio coding format (or sometimes audio compression format) is a content representation format for storage or transmission of digital audio (such as in digital television, digital radio and in audio and video files).

Discrete cosine transform

DCTiDCTinverse discrete cosine transform
Discrete cosine transform (DCT) coding, a lossy compression method first proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972, provided the basis for the modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT), which was developed by J. P. Princen, A. W. Johnson and A. B. Bradley in 1987.
It is used in most digital media, including digital images (such as JPEG and HEIF, where small high-frequency components can be discarded), digital video (such as MPEG, H.26x and Vorbis), digital audio (such as Dolby Digital, MP3 and AAC), digital television (such as SDTV, HDTV and VOD), digital radio (such as AAC+ and DAB+), and speech coding (such as AAC-LD, Siren and Opus).

Computer

computerscomputer systemdigital computer
This digital signal can then be recorded, edited, modified, and copied using computers, audio playback machines, and other digital tools.

Lossy compression

lossylossy data compressioncompressed
Discrete cosine transform (DCT) coding, a lossy compression method first proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972, provided the basis for the modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT), which was developed by J. P. Princen, A. W. Johnson and A. B. Bradley in 1987.
Some forms of lossy compression can be thought of as an application of transform coding, which is a type of data compression used for digital images, digital audio signals, and digital video.

Thomas Stockham

Thomas G. StockhamDr. Thomas G. StockhamDr. Thomas G. Stockham Jr.
The first 16-bit PCM recording in the United States was made by Thomas Stockham at the Santa Fe Opera in 1976, on a Soundstream recorder.
Thomas Greenway Stockham (December 22, 1933 – January 6, 2004) was an American scientist who developed one of the first practical digital audio recording systems, and pioneered techniques for digital audio recording and processing as well.

Soundstream

Soundstream Inc.
The first 16-bit PCM recording in the United States was made by Thomas Stockham at the Santa Fe Opera in 1976, on a Soundstream recorder.
Soundstream Inc. was the first audiophile digital audio recording company, providing commercial services for recording and computer-based editing.