Digital audio broadcasting

DABDAB+digital radioDAB Digital RadioDAB radiodigitalDigital Audio Broadcasting (DAB)DAB DigitalDAB multiplex(DAB
Digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is a digital radio standard for broadcasting digital audio radio services, used in many countries around the world, though not North America.wikipedia
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Digital radio

digitalDABdigital transmission
Digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is a digital radio standard for broadcasting digital audio radio services, used in many countries around the world, though not North America.
In 2012 four digital wireless radio systems are recognized by the International Telecommunication Union: the two European systems Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) and Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM), the Japanese ISDB-T and the in-band on-channel technique used in the US and Arab world and branded as HD Radio.

NRK Klassisk

Klassisk
The Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK) launched the first DAB channel in the world on 1 June 1995 (NRK Klassisk), and the BBC and Swedish Radio (SR) launched their first DAB digital radio broadcasts in September 1995.
NRK Klassisk is a digital radio channel operated by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK) which broadcasts classical music 24 hours a day.

Radio receiver

receiverreceiversRadios
DAB receivers have been available in many countries since the end of the 1990s.
Digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is an advanced radio technology which debuted in some countries in 1998 that transmits audio from terrestrial radio stations as a digital signal rather than an analog signal as AM and FM do.

Countries using DAB/DMB

regional implementations
See Countries using DAB/DMB.
The radio technology known as Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB and DAB+), and its TV sibling, Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB), is being operated in several regions worldwide, either in the form of full services, or as feasibility studies.

MPEG-1 Audio Layer II

MP22II
The original version of DAB used the MP2 audio codec.
MPEG-1 Audio Layer 2 encoding was derived from the MUSICAM (Masking pattern adapted Universal Subband Integrated Coding And Multiplexing) audio codec, developed by Centre commun d'études de télévision et télécommunications (CCETT), Philips, and the Institut für Rundfunktechnik (IRT) in 1989 as part of the EUREKA 147 pan-European inter-governmental research and development initiative for the development of a system for the broadcasting of audio and data to fixed, portable or mobile receivers (established in 1987).

FM broadcasting

FMFM radioFM band
DAB is generally more efficient in its use of spectrum than analogue FM radio, and thus can offer more radio services for the same given bandwidth. Traditionally radio programmes were broadcast on different frequencies via AM and FM, and the radio had to be tuned into each frequency, as needed.
In the United States and Canada, digital radio services are being deployed within the FM band rather than using Eureka 147 or the Japanese standard ISDB.

Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing

OFDMorthogonal frequency division multiplexingCOFDM
DAB was the first standard based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation technique, which since then has become one of the most popular transmission schemes for modern wideband digital communication systems. OFDM allows the use of single-frequency networks (SFN), which means that a network of transmitters can provide coverage to a large area – up to the size of a country – where all transmitters use the same transmission frequency.
COFDM was introduced by Alard in 1986 for Digital Audio Broadcasting for Eureka Project 147.

Band III

high VHFhigh-bandBand 3
DAB uses a wide-bandwidth broadcast technology and typically spectra have been allocated for it in Band III (174–240 MHz) and L band (1.452–1.492 GHz), although the scheme allows for operation between 30 and 300 MHz.
The band came into use for radio broadcasting at the turn of the 21st century and is used for Digital Audio Broadcasting.

Sveriges Radio

SRSwedish RadioSwedish National Radio
The Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK) launched the first DAB channel in the world on 1 June 1995 (NRK Klassisk), and the BBC and Swedish Radio (SR) launched their first DAB digital radio broadcasts in September 1995.
Sveriges Radio also provides a number of channels through Digital audio broadcasting, using the DAB standard, and via the internet.

Sound Digital

SDL NationalDigital TwoMellow Magic
In February 2016, the new national network Sound Digital launched with three DAB+ stations.
Sound Digital is a semi national commercial digital radio multiplex in the United Kingdom, owned by Arqiva, Bauer Media Group and Wireless Group.

AM broadcasting

AMAM radioA.M.
Traditionally radio programmes were broadcast on different frequencies via AM and FM, and the radio had to be tuned into each frequency, as needed.
Subsequently, AM radio's audiences have also greatly shrunk due to competition from FM (frequency modulation) radio, Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), satellite radio, HD (digital) radio and Internet streaming.

Institut für Rundfunktechnik

IRTInstitute for Broadcast Technology
DAB has been under development since 1981 at the Institut für Rundfunktechnik (IRT).
They invented important standards such as DAB and DVB-T.

HD Radio

HDHD2HD-2
In contrast, FM HD Radio adds its digital carriers to the traditional 270 kilohertz-wide analog channels, with capability of up to 300 kbit/s per station (pure digital mode).
It is officially known as NRSC-5, with the latest version being NRSC-5-D. Other digital radio systems include FMeXtra, Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) (Eureka 147), Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM30 and DRM+ configurations), and Compatible AM-Digital (CAM-D).

Eureka (organisation)

EurekaEUREKA NetworkEUREKA organization
Later, DAB was developed as a research project for the European Union (EUREKA), which started in 1987 on initiative by a consortium formed in 1986.
E! 147 was a 93 million euros digital audio broadcasting project whose technologies went into Musicam, and which was used as the basis for MPEG-1 Layer II (MP2) and used in DAB (Digital Audio Broadcast), and ASPEC (Adaptive Spectral Perceptual Entropy Coding), which was used in a modified form in MP3 audio.

High-Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding

eAAC+eAACHE-AAC
In October 2005, the World DMB Forum instructed its Technical Committee to carry out the work needed to adopt the AAC+ audio codec and stronger error correction coding.
HE-AAC is used in digital radio standards like DAB+ and Digital Radio Mondiale.

L band

LL-bandL1
DAB uses a wide-bandwidth broadcast technology and typically spectra have been allocated for it in Band III (174–240 MHz) and L band (1.452–1.492 GHz), although the scheme allows for operation between 30 and 300 MHz.
Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) in Europe primarily uses Band III, but may also be carried in the 1452–1492MHz range in some countries.

Single-frequency network

SFNsingle frequency networkbooster
OFDM allows the use of single-frequency networks (SFN), which means that a network of transmitters can provide coverage to a large area – up to the size of a country – where all transmitters use the same transmission frequency.
OFDM is also widely used in digital radio systems, including DAB, HD Radio, and T-DMB.

WorldDAB

WorldDMB
In October 2005, the World DMB Forum instructed its Technical Committee to carry out the work needed to adopt the AAC+ audio codec and stronger error correction coding.
WorldDAB is a global industry organisation responsible for defining the standards of the Eureka-147 family which includes DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) and DAB+ for digital radio Digital radio.

NRK

Norwegian Broadcasting CorporationNorsk rikskringkastingNRK Forfatter
The Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK) launched the first DAB channel in the world on 1 June 1995 (NRK Klassisk), and the BBC and Swedish Radio (SR) launched their first DAB digital radio broadcasts in September 1995.
A 24-hour station for classical music, Alltid Klassisk (now called "NRK Klassisk"), introduced in 1995, was the first of its kind to be broadcast digitally using DAB.

Bit rate

bitratedata ratedata transfer rate
An ensemble has a maximum bit rate that can be carried, but this depends on which error protection level is used.
256 kbit/s Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) MP2 bit rate required to achieve a high quality signal

P4 Radio Hele Norge

P4Radio Channel P4Radio P4
21 April in Trøndelag and Møre og Romsdal (P4, Radio Norge and local radio)
It broadcasts via DAB+ and on the Internet.

Digital multimedia broadcasting

DMBT-DMBDigital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB)
Digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB) and DAB-IP are suitable for mobile radio and TV both because they support MPEG 4 AVC and WMV9 respectively as video codecs.
This technology, sometimes known as mobile TV, should not be confused with Digital Audio Broadcasting which was developed as a research project for the European Union.

BBC Radio 3

Radio 33BBC Third Programme
When the BBC in July 2006 reduced the bit-rate of transmission of its classical music station Radio 3 from 192 kbit/s to 160 kbit/s, the resulting degradation of audio quality prompted a number of complaints to the Corporation.
BBC Radio 3 is broadcast on the FM band between 90.2 and 92.6 MHz, on DAB Digital Radio, the digital television services Freeview, Freesat, Sky, Virgin Media, TalkTalk TV and Virgin Media Ireland.

Federal Communications Commission

FCCFederal Communications Commission (FCC)Federal Communication Commission
The United States' FCC argues that stations on such a national DAB Band would be more difficult to control from signal interference than AM/FM/TV because of the continent's large land mass; and corporations who sell DAB radio in North America could find it more expensive to market these types of radio to consumers.
This is in contrast to worldwide DAB, which uses unused TV channels in the VHF band III range.

ISDB

ISDB-TISDB-SIntegrated Service Digital Broadcasting-Terrestrial
ISDB
This is also much like another digital radio system, Eureka 147, which calls each group of stations on a transmitter an ensemble; this is very much like the multi-channel digital TV standard DVB-T.