Digital currency

electronic moneydigital currencieselectronic pursedigital cashe-moneye-currencye-purseelectronic currencyvirtual currenciesvirtual currency
Digital currency (digital money, electronic money or electronic currency) is a type of currency available in digital form (in contrast to physical, such as banknotes and coins).wikipedia
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Virtual currency

virtual currenciesdigital tokensvirtual
Examples include virtual currencies and cryptocurrencies and central bank issued money accounted for in a computer database (including digital base money).
Virtual currency, or virtual money, is a type of unregulated, digital money, which is issued and usually controlled by its developers and used and accepted among the members of a specific virtual community.

Currency

currenciesforeign currencycoinage
Digital currency (digital money, electronic money or electronic currency) is a type of currency available in digital form (in contrast to physical, such as banknotes and coins).
Digital currency has arisen with the popularity of computers and the Internet.

Cryptocurrency

cryptocurrenciescrypto-currencyaltcoin
Examples include virtual currencies and cryptocurrencies and central bank issued money accounted for in a computer database (including digital base money).
In 1983, the American cryptographer David Chaum conceived an anonymous cryptographic electronic money called ecash.

Bitcoin

bitcoinsbitcoin walletBitcoin blockchain
In 2008, bitcoin was introduced, which marked the start of digital currencies.
It is a decentralized digital currency without a central bank or single administrator that can be sent from user-to-user on the peer-to-peer bitcoin network without the need for intermediaries.

David Chaum

[David] ChaumChaum, DavidChaumian
In 1983, a research paper by David Chaum introduced the idea of digital cash.
He has also invented many cryptographic protocols and founded DigiCash, an electronic money corporation.

Liberty Reserve

Another known digital currency service was Liberty Reserve, founded in 2006; it lets users convert dollars or euros to Liberty Reserve Dollars or Euros, and exchange them freely with one another at a 1% fee.
Liberty Reserve was a Costa Rica-based centralized digital currency service that billed itself as the "oldest, safest and most popular payment processor, serving millions all around a world".

DigiCash

In 1990, he founded DigiCash, an electronic cash company, in Amsterdam to commercialize the ideas in his research.
DigiCash Inc. was an electronic money corporation founded by David Chaum in 1989.

NatWest

National Westminster BankNatWest BankWestminster Bank
In 1994 Mondex and National Westminster Bank provided an "electronic purse" to residents of Swindon
National Westminster Home Loans was established in 1980 and other initiatives included the launch of the Piggy Account for children in 1983, the Credit Zone, a flexible overdraft facility on which customers only pay interest (now commonplace, this so-called pink debt was innovative when launched) and the development of the Mondex electronic purse (later sold to MasterCard Worldwide) in 1990.

Cryptography

cryptographiccryptographercryptology
A cryptocurrency is a type of digital asset that relies on cryptography for chaining together digital signatures of asset transfers, peer-to-peer networking and decentralization.
Applications of cryptography include electronic commerce, chip-based payment cards, digital currencies, computer passwords, and military communications.

Money

monetaryspeciecash
Like traditional money, these currencies may be used to buy physical goods and services, but may also be restricted to certain communities such as for use inside an online game or social network.
By the 2000s most money existed as digital currency in bank databases.

Dot-com bubble

dot-com boomdot-com bustdot-com crash
Origins of digital currencies date back to the 1990s Dot-com bubble.
Flooz.com – A digital currency founded by Robert Levitan; it folded in 2001 due to lack of consumer acceptance. It was famous for having Whoopi Goldberg as its spokesperson.

Banknote

paper moneybanknotespaper currency
Digital currency (digital money, electronic money or electronic currency) is a type of currency available in digital form (in contrast to physical, such as banknotes and coins).
Some governments, such as Canada, are considering replacing paper notes and coins with digital currency.

Octopus card

OctopusOctopus stored-value card
Hong Kong’s Octopus card system: Launched in 1997 as an electronic purse for public transportation, is the most successful and mature implementation of contactless smart cards used for mass transit payments. After only 5 years, 25 percent of Octopus card transactions are unrelated to transit, and accepted by more than 160 merchants.
The Octopus card is a reusable contactless stored value smart card for making electronic payments in online or offline systems in Hong Kong.

Stored-value card

prepaidprepaid cardsstored-value
Digital currency is a money balance recorded electronically on a stored-value card or other devices.
Electronic money

PayPal

PayPal Holdings PayPal Inc.breakup of eBay
After that PayPal emerged in 1998.
Electronic money

FeliCa

FeliCa Networks, Inc.mobile FeliCa
Japan’s FeliCa: A contactless RFID smart card, used in a variety of ways such as in ticketing systems for public transportation, e-money, and residence door keys.
FeliCa is a contactless RFID smart card system from Sony in Japan, primarily used in electronic money cards.

E-gold

eGoldDouglas Jackson
Other systems followed suit, such as e-gold, but it faced issues because it was used by criminals and was closed by U.S Department of Justice in 2005.
Digital currency

E-Money Directive

EU Electronic Money Directive
Since 2001, the European Union has implemented the E-Money Directive "on the taking up, pursuit and prudential supervision of the business of electronic money institutions" last amended in 2009.
The aim is enable new and secure electronic money services and to foster effective competition between all market participants.

Peer-to-peer

P2Ppeer to peerpeer-to-peer network
A cryptocurrency is a type of digital asset that relies on cryptography for chaining together digital signatures of asset transfers, peer-to-peer networking and decentralization.
Bitcoin and alternatives such as Ether, Nxt and Peercoin are peer-to-peer-based digital cryptocurrencies.

Proton (bank card)

Proton
Belgium's Proton: An electronic purse application for debit cards in Belgium. Introduced in February 1995, as a means to replace cash for small transactions. The system was retired in December 31, 2014.
Proton was an electronic purse application for debit cards in Belgium.

Credit card

credit cardscreditcredit-card
Currency can be exchanged electronically using debit cards and credit cards using electronic funds transfer at point of sale.
Electronic money

Cryptocurrency exchange

bitcoin exchangeexchangedigital currency exchange
Digital currency exchanger
A cryptocurrency exchange or a digital currency exchange (DCE) is a business that allows customers to trade cryptocurrencies or digital currencies for other assets, such as conventional fiat money or other digital currencies.

Central Bank Digital Currency

central bank issued digital currencydigital base money
Examples include virtual currencies and cryptocurrencies and central bank issued money accounted for in a computer database (including digital base money).
Central bank digital currency is different from "digital currency" (or virtual currency and cryptocurrency), which are not issued by the state and lack the legal tender status declared by the government.

Cashless society

cashlessabolishing cash
Cashless society
Cashless societies have existed from the time when human society came into existence, based on barter and other methods of exchange, and cashless transactions have also become possible in modern times using digital currencies such as bitcoin.

Private currency

private currencieslimited means of paymentprivate
Private currency
These include commercial trade exchanges that use barter credits as units of exchange, private gold and silver exchanges, local paper money, computerized systems of credits and debits, and digital currencies in circulation, such as digital gold currency.