Diocletian

Emperor DiocletianDiocletian Reformsreformstop-heavy state bureaucracy Valerius Diocletianus291 reformsChristian persecution of DiocletianDioclesDiocletian's reformsDiocletianic
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244 – 3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.wikipedia
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Maximian

Maximianus HerculiusEmperor MaximianMaximian Herculeus
He appointed fellow officer Maximian as Augustus, co-emperor, in 286. Diocletian reigned in the Eastern Empire, and Maximian reigned in the Western Empire.
He shared the latter title with his co-emperor and superior, Diocletian, whose political brain complemented Maximian's military brawn.

Western Roman Empire

Western EmpireWesternWest
Diocletian reigned in the Eastern Empire, and Maximian reigned in the Western Empire.
Though the Empire had seen periods with more than one Emperor ruling jointly before, the view that it was impossible for a single emperor to govern the entire Empire was institutionalised to reforms to Roman law by emperor Diocletian following the disastrous civil wars and disintegrations of the Crisis of the Third Century.

Galerius

Emperor GaleriusGaius Galerius Valerius MaximianusGalerius Maximianus
Diocletian delegated further on 1 March 293, appointing Galerius and Constantius as Caesars, junior co-emperors, under himself and Maximian respectively.
During his reign, he campaigned, aided by Diocletian, against the Sassanid Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 299.

Carinus

Marcus Aurelius CarinusCaesar Marcus Aurelius Carinus AugustusCharinus
The title was also claimed by Carus' surviving son, Carinus, but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus.
Official accounts of his character and career, which portray him as debauched and incapable, have been filtered through the propaganda of his successful opponent, Diocletian.

Tetrarchy

tetrarchtetrarchicTetrarchs
Under this 'tetrarchy', or "rule of four", each emperor would rule over a quarter-division of the empire.
The term "tetrarchy" (from the τετραρχία, tetrarchia, "leadership of four [people]") describes any form of government where power is divided among four individuals, but in modern usage usually refers to the system instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire.

Byzantine Empire

ByzantineByzantinesEastern Roman Empire
Diocletian reigned in the Eastern Empire, and Maximian reigned in the Western Empire.
An early instance of the partition of the Empire into East and West occurred in 293, when Emperor Diocletian created a new administrative system (the tetrarchy), to guarantee security in all endangered regions of his Empire.

Crisis of the Third Century

crisis of the 3rd centuryCrisisconfusion in the Imperial seat
Diocletian's reign stabilized the empire and marks the end of the Crisis of the Third Century.
Later, Aurelian (270–275) reunited the empire; the crisis ended with the ascension and reforms of Diocletian in 284.

Battle of the Margus

Roman civil war
The title was also claimed by Carus' surviving son, Carinus, but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus.
The Battle of the Margus was fought in July 285 between the armies of Roman Emperors Diocletian and Carinus in the valley of the Margus River (today Great Morava) in Moesia (present day Serbia).

Nicomedia

AstacuscityNicomedeia
He established new administrative centres in Nicomedia, Mediolanum, Sirmium, and Trevorum, closer to the empire's frontiers than the traditional capital at Rome.
In 286 Nicomedia became the eastern and most senior capital city of the Roman Empire (chosen by Diocletian who assumed the title Augustus of the East), a status which the city maintained during the Tetrarchy system (293–324).

Constantius Chlorus

ConstantiusConstantius IEmperor Constantius
Diocletian delegated further on 1 March 293, appointing Galerius and Constantius as Caesars, junior co-emperors, under himself and Maximian respectively.
His death sparked the collapse of the tetrarchic system of government inaugurated by the Emperor Diocletian.

Diocletianic Persecution

persecution of DiocletianGreat Persecutionpersecution
The Diocletianic Persecution (303–312), the empire's last, largest, and bloodiest official persecution of Christianity, failed to eliminate Christianity in the empire; indeed, after 324, Christianity became the empire's preferred religion under Constantine.
In 303, the Emperors Diocletian, Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius issued a series of edicts rescinding Christians' legal rights and demanding that they comply with traditional religious practices.

Constantine the Great

ConstantineConstantine IEmperor Constantine
The Diocletianic Persecution (303–312), the empire's last, largest, and bloodiest official persecution of Christianity, failed to eliminate Christianity in the empire; indeed, after 324, Christianity became the empire's preferred religion under Constantine.
Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian and Galerius.

Edict on Maximum Prices

De Pretiis Rerum VenaliumDiocletian's edict on pricesDiocletian's Price Edict
Not all of Diocletian's plans were successful: the Edict on Maximum Prices (301), his attempt to curb inflation via price controls, was counterproductive and quickly ignored.
The Edict on Maximum Prices (Latin: Edictum de Pretiis Rerum Venalium, "Edict Concerning the Sale Price of Goods"; also known as the Edict on Prices or the Edict of Diocletian) was issued in 301 by Roman Emperor Diocletian.

Diocletian's Palace

palacePalace of DiocletianDiocletian
He lived out his retirement in his palace on the Dalmatian coast, tending to his vegetable gardens.
Diocletian's Palace (Dioklecijanova palača, ) is an ancient palace built for the Roman Emperor Diocletian at the turn of the fourth century AD, that today forms about half the old town of Split, Croatia.

Price controls

price controlprice freezeliberalization of prices
Not all of Diocletian's plans were successful: the Edict on Maximum Prices (301), his attempt to curb inflation via price controls, was counterproductive and quickly ignored.
The Roman Emperor Diocletian tried to set maximum prices for all commodities in the late 3rd century AD but with little success.

Civil wars of the Tetrarchy

battlescivil warsmoved against Licinius once more
Although effective while he ruled, Diocletian's tetrarchic system collapsed after his abdication under the competing dynastic claims of Maxentius and Constantine, sons of Maximian and Constantius respectively.
The Tetrarchy refers to the administrative division of the Roman Empire instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293 AD, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire.

Caesar (title)

CaesarKayser-i RûmCaesars
Diocletian delegated further on 1 March 293, appointing Galerius and Constantius as Caesars, junior co-emperors, under himself and Maximian respectively.
On 1 March 293, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus established the Tetrarchy, a system of rule by two senior Emperors and two junior sub-Emperors.

Trier

TrèvesAugusta TreverorumEuren
He established new administrative centres in Nicomedia, Mediolanum, Sirmium, and Trevorum, closer to the empire's frontiers than the traditional capital at Rome.
The city later became the capital of the province of Belgic Gaul; after the Diocletian Reforms, it became the capital of the prefecture of the Gauls, overseeing much of the Western Roman Empire.

Dalmatia (Roman province)

Dalmatiaprovince of DalmatiaRoman province of Dalmatia
Born to a family of low status in Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become Roman cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus. Diocletian was born near Salona in Dalmatia (Solin in modern Croatia), some time around 244.
The size of the provinces had been decreased and their number doubled by Diocletian.

Maxentius

Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maxentius AugustusMarcus Aurelius Valerius ''Maxentius'' AugustusMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius
Although effective while he ruled, Diocletian's tetrarchic system collapsed after his abdication under the competing dynastic claims of Maxentius and Constantine, sons of Maximian and Constantius respectively.
He seems not to have served, however, in any important military or administrative position during the reign of Diocletian and his father.

Augustan History

Historia AugustaTrebellius PollioAelius Spartianus
The often-unreliable Historia Augusta states that he served in Gaul, but this account is not corroborated by other sources and is ignored by modern historians of the period.
Supposedly modeled on the similar work of Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, it presents itself as a compilation of works by six different authors (collectively known as the Scriptores Historiae Augustae), written during the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine I and addressed to those emperors or other important personages in Rome.

Split, Croatia

SplitSpalatoSplit, Yugoslavia
His palace eventually became the core of the modern-day city of Split in Croatia.
The Roman Emperor Diocletian (ruled AD 284 to 305) in 293 began the construction of an opulent and heavily fortified palace fronting the sea, near his home town of Salona, selecting the site of Spálathos (or Spalatum in Latin).

Croatia

🇭🇷CroatianRepublic of Croatia
His palace eventually became the core of the modern-day city of Split in Croatia. Diocletian was born near Salona in Dalmatia (Solin in modern Croatia), some time around 244.
Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305.

Solin

Salona
Diocletian was born near Salona in Dalmatia (Solin in modern Croatia), some time around 244.
Solin developed on the location of ancient city of Salona which was the capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia and the birthplace of Emperor Diocletian.

Carus

Marcus Aurelius CarusCaesar Marcus Aurelius Carus Augustuscārus
Born to a family of low status in Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become Roman cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus.
This was a marked departure from the constitutionalism of his immediate predecessors, Tacitus and Probus, who at least outwardly respected the authority of the senate, and was the precursor to the even more despotic military autocracy of Diocletian.