Direct democracy

direct democraticdirect legislationdirectinitiative and referendumdirectlydirectly democraticdemocraticdirect participationpure democracydirect democratic rule
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.wikipedia
754 Related Articles

Democracy

democraticdemocraciesdemocratically
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.
In a direct democracy, the citizens as a whole form a governing body and vote directly on each issue.

Representative democracy

elected representativerepresentative democraticparliamentary democracy
This differs from the majority of currently established democracies, which are representative democracies.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative government or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

Initiative

ballot initiativepopular initiativeinitiatives
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly. Semi-direct democracies in which representatives administer day-to-day governance, but the citizens remain the sovereign, allow for three forms of popular action: referendum (plebiscite), initiative, and recall.
It is a form of direct democracy.

Deliberative democracy

deliberationdeliberatingdeliberative democratic
Two leading forms of direct democracy are participatory democracy and deliberative democracy.
While deliberative democracy is generally seen as some form of an amalgam of representative democracy and direct democracy, the actual relationship is usually open to dispute.

Referendum

plebiscitereferendareferendums
Semi-direct democracies in which representatives administer day-to-day governance, but the citizens remain the sovereign, allow for three forms of popular action: referendum (plebiscite), initiative, and recall.
From a political-philosophical perspective, referendums are an expression of direct democracy.

Popular assembly

assemblyGeneral Assemblypopular assemblies
The earliest known direct democracy is said to be the Athenian democracy in the 5th century BC, although it was not an inclusive democracy: women, foreigners, and slaves were excluded from it. The main bodies in the Athenian democracy were the assembly, composed of male citizens; the boulê, composed of 500 citizens; and the law courts, composed of a massive number of jurors chosen by lot, with no judges.
Assemblies tend to be freely open to participation and operate by direct democracy.

Athenian democracy

democracydemocraticAthens
The earliest known direct democracy is said to be the Athenian democracy in the 5th century BC, although it was not an inclusive democracy: women, foreigners, and slaves were excluded from it. The main bodies in the Athenian democracy were the assembly, composed of male citizens; the boulê, composed of 500 citizens; and the law courts, composed of a massive number of jurors chosen by lot, with no judges.
Athens practiced a political system of direct democracy in which participating citizens voted directly on legislation and executive bills.

E-democracy

digital democracyelectronic democracyeDemocracy
Some of the issues surrounding the related notion of a direct democracy using the Internet and other communications technologies are dealt with in e-democracy and below under the term electronic direct democracy.
It is a form of government in which all adult citizens are presumed to be eligible to participate equally in the proposal, development, and creation of laws.

Switzerland

Swiss🇨🇭SWI
This form of direct democracy effectively grants the voting public a veto on laws adopted by the elected legislature, as is done in Switzerland. Switzerland is a rare example of a country with instruments of direct democracy (at the levels of the municipalities, cantons, and federal state). The pure form of direct democracy exists only in the Swiss cantons of Appenzell Innerrhoden and Glarus.
Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, and Alpine symbolism.

History of democracy

democratic movementdemocraticdominance of democracy
Athenian democracy developed in the Greek city-state of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, around 600 BC. Athens was one of the very first known democracies.
Debate was open to all present and decisions in all matters of policy were taken by majority vote in the Ecclesia (compare direct democracy), in which all male citizens could participate (in some cases with a quorum of 6000).

Optional referendum

Abrogativereferendum
On any political level citizens can propose changes to the constitution (popular initiative), or ask for an optional referendum to be held on any law voted by the federal, cantonal parliament and/or municipal legislative body.
The optional referendum (fakultatives Referendum; référendum facultatif, referendum facoltativo, referendum facultativ) is an instrument of direct democracy in Switzerland.

Mandatory referendum

mandatory
The list for mandatory or optional referendums on each political level are generally much longer in Switzerland than in any other country; for example any amendment to the constitution must automatically be voted on by the Swiss electorate and cantons, on cantonal/communal levels often any financial decision of a certain substantial amount decreed by legislative and/or executive bodies as well.
The mandatory referendum (obligatorisches Referendum, référendum obligatoire, referendum obbligatorio, referendum obligatoric) is an instrument of direct democracy in Switzerland.

Town meeting

open town meetingtown meetingsTown Meeting Moderator
In the New England region of the United States, towns in areas such as Vermont decide local affairs through the direct democratic process of the town meeting.
A town meeting is a form of direct democratic rule, used primarily in portions of the United States – principally in New England – since the 17th century, in which most or all the members of a community come together to legislate policy and budgets for local government.

Politics of Switzerland

SwitzerlandSwiss politicsfederal government
Switzerland is a rare example of a country with instruments of direct democracy (at the levels of the municipalities, cantons, and federal state).
Switzerland has a tradition of direct democracy.

Popular initiative (Switzerland)

popular initiativefederal popular initiativepopular initiatives
On any political level citizens can propose changes to the constitution (popular initiative), or ask for an optional referendum to be held on any law voted by the federal, cantonal parliament and/or municipal legislative body.
Besides referendum and, in some cantons, recall, it is a means of direct democracy in Switzerland.

Participatory democracy

participatoryparticipative democracypolitical participation
Two leading forms of direct democracy are participatory democracy and deliberative democracy.
But for large political entities, the democratic reform trilemma makes it difficult for any system of decision-making based on political equality to involve both deliberation and inclusive participation.

New England town

towntownsNew England
In the New England region of the United States, towns in areas such as Vermont decide local affairs through the direct democratic process of the town meeting.
Traditionally, a town's legislative body is the open town meeting, which is a form of direct democratic rule, with a board of selectmen possessing executive authority. Only several Swiss cantons with Landsgemeinde remain as democratic as the small New England town meetings.

Open-source governance

open source governanceopen politicsopen governance
More concisely, the concept of open source governance applies principles of the free software movement to the governance of people, allowing the entire populace to participate in government directly, as much or as little as they please.
:Aktivdemokrati is a Direct democratic party, running for the parliament of Sweden Democracylab.us is a Portland Oregon nonprofit (501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, partnered with the Oregon 150 Project, building an online public think tank in which the votes of users determines policy, seeking to connect the values people hold to their positions on issues and the policies they advocate.

Federalist No. 10

No. 10Federalist Paper No. 10Federalist № 10
For example, James Madison, in Federalist No. 10, advocates a constitutional republic over direct democracy precisely to protect the individual from the will of the majority.
Historians such as Charles A. Beard argue that No. 10 shows an explicit rejection by the Founding Fathers of the principles of direct democracy and factionalism, and argue that Madison suggests that a representative republic is more effective against partisanship and factionalism.

Sortition

drawing of lotslotdemarchy
Depending on the particular system in use, direct democracy might entail passing executive decisions, the use of sortition, making laws, directly electing or dismissing officials, and conducting trials.
Supporters also argue that sortition alleviates the problems of voter fatigue and rational ignorance, which is seen as a problem in both representative democracy and direct democracy.

Cantons of Switzerland

cantoncantonscantonal
On any political level citizens can propose changes to the constitution (popular initiative), or ask for an optional referendum to be held on any law voted by the federal, cantonal parliament and/or municipal legislative body. Switzerland is a rare example of a country with instruments of direct democracy (at the levels of the municipalities, cantons, and federal state). The pure form of direct democracy exists only in the Swiss cantons of Appenzell Innerrhoden and Glarus.
In the early modern period, the individual confederate allies came to be seen as republics; while the six traditional allies had a tradition of direct democracy in the form of the Landsgemeinde, the urban states operated via representation in city councils, de facto oligarchic systems dominated by families of the patriciate.

New England

southern New EnglandNew EnglanderNew England region
In the New England region of the United States, towns in areas such as Vermont decide local affairs through the direct democratic process of the town meeting.
This is the strongest example of direct democracy in the U.S.

Macedonia (ancient kingdom)

MacedoniaMacedonancient Macedonia
It was suppressed by the Macedonians in 322 BC. The Athenian institutions were later revived, but the extent to which they were a real democracy is debatable.
A small amount of evidence suggests the existence of an assembly of the army during times of war and a people's assembly during times of peace.

Summerhill School

SummerhillA.S.'s Summerhill Schoolschool by the same name
Democratic schools modeled on Summerhill School resolve conflicts and make school policy decisions through full school meetings in which the votes of students and staff are weighted equally.
It is run as a democratic community; the running of the school is conducted in the school meetings, which anyone, staff or pupil, may attend, and at which everyone has an equal vote.

Libertarian socialism

libertarian socialistlibertarianlibertarian socialists
Libertarian socialism
Libertarian socialists advocate for decentralized structures based on direct democracy and [[Federalism#Federalism as the anarchist and libertarian socialist mode of political organization|federal]] or confederal associations such as libertarian municipalism, citizens' assemblies, trade unions, and workers' councils.