Direct examination

directexamination-in-chiefevidence in chiefexaminationExamination in Chiefexaminedexamined in chief
The direct examination or examination-in-chief is one stage in the process of adducing evidence from witnesses in a court of law.wikipedia
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Evidence (law)

evidencerules of evidencelaw of evidence
Direct examination is usually performed to elicit evidence in support of facts which will satisfy a required element of a party's claim or defense.
The bulk of the law of evidence regulates the types of evidence that may be sought from witnesses and the manner in which the interrogation of witnesses is conducted such as during direct examination and cross-examination of witnesses.

Leading question

leading questionsleadingquestions biased
In direct examination, one is generally prohibited from asking leading questions.
An examiner may generally ask leading questions of a hostile witness or on cross-examination (to elicit testimony which the witness might be reluctant to volunteer), but not on direct examination (to "coach" the witness to provide a particular answer).

Hostile witness

hostileadverse witnessgive false statements
The lawyer may then ask the court to declare the person he or she has called to the stand a hostile witness.
A hostile witness, otherwise known as an adverse witness or an unfavorable witness, is a witness at trial whose testimony on direct examination is either openly antagonistic or appears to be contrary to the legal position of the party who called the witness.


court of lawcourtscourts of law
The direct examination or examination-in-chief is one stage in the process of adducing evidence from witnesses in a court of law.


Direct examination is the questioning of a witness by the party who called him or her, in a trial.

Trial advocacy

The techniques of direct examination are taught in courses on trial advocacy.


cross-examinecross-examinedcross examination
It is preceded by direct examination (in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India and Pakistan known as examination-in-chief) and may be followed by a redirect (re-examination in England, Scotland, Australia, Canada, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, and Pakistan).

Pennsylvania Mock Trial Competition

The plaintiff/prosecution conducts a direct examination of the witness, and then defense conducts a cross examination of the same witness.

Perry Mason moment

On direct examination, both claimed that the brothers went to a nearby Big 5 store to buy handguns, ostensibly to protect themselves from their parents, only to find out that there was a mandatory waiting period of seven days before they could take possession of the weapons.

Roy Cohn

Roy M. Cohn
Cohn's direct examination of Ethel's brother, David Greenglass, produced testimony that was central to the Rosenbergs' conviction and subsequent execution.

Inquisitorial system

inquisitorialinquisitionInvestigating Judge
In some American jurisdictions, it is common practice for jurors to submit questions to the court that they feel were not resolved in direct or cross-examination.

Civil procedure in South Africa

civil proceduredismiss the applicationSouth Africa
These witnesses are examined in chief, cross-examined, and re-examined.

Alissa Bjerkhoel

Among the skills she taught were how to conduct direct examination, cross-examination, the opening statement and the closing argument.


The side that calls the witness first asks questions in what is called direct examination.

Deposition (law)

The attorney who has ordered the deposition begins questioning of the deponent (this is referred to as "direct examination" or "direct" for short).

Selle v. Gibb

Ronald Selle
On direct examination, Selle testified as to how he wrote his song, made the demo tape and wrote the sheet music, copyrighted it, and then sent it off to fourteen music publishers.

Objection (United States law)

Asked and Answered: when the same attorney continues to ask the same question and they have already received an answer. Usually seen after direct, but not always.

Edward Kern (police officer)

Edward Kern
Under direct examination, after testifying about his life background and history, he answered most other questions by defense counsel in a negative way, such as "I did not," "He did not" and "He never did."

Death of Edith Alice Morrell

Edith Alice Morrellelderly widow
Lawrence was able to use the complete list, together with the results of his cross examination of the nurses and the prosecution expert witnesses and examination-in-chief of the defence medical expert to describe the decline of an old lady during which Adams had made her comfortable to the best of his ability although using substantial (but not necessarily lethal) amounts of opiate drugs, until her decline accelerated towards a natural death from old age, possibly related to a second stroke.

2012 Ingleside, San Francisco homicide

Five people are found deadthe murder of five people in San Francisco
Both direct examination and cross-examination focused on several thousand dollars of cash left at the scene.

Tichborne case

Tichborne ClaimantArthur OrtonHenry Joseph Tichborne
During his examination-in-chief, the Claimant answered questions on Arthur Orton, whom he described as "a large-boned man with sharp features and a lengthy face slightly marked with smallpox".

Constitution of Italy

Italian ConstitutionConstitutionConstitution of the Italian Republic
The rights to direct, cross and redirect examination are also recognised to both the defendant and the prosecutor.