Disability

disabilitiesdisabledhandicappeddisabled peoplepeople with disabilitieshandicapdisabledisabled personspersons with disabilitiesimpairment
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.wikipedia
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Physical disability

physical disabilitiesphysically disabledphysical
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
Other physical disabilities include impairments which limit other facets of daily living, such as respiratory disorders, blindness, epilepsy and sleep disorders.

Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
Stigma and discrimination can add to the suffering and disability associated with mental disorders, leading to various social movements attempting to increase understanding and challenge social exclusion.

Medical model of disability

medical modelmedicalmedical authority
It may be used to refer to physical or mental attributes that some institutions, particularly medicine, view as needing to be fixed (the medical model).
The medical model of disability, or medical model, arose from the biomedical perception of disability.

Ableism

ableistdisability discriminationdisability
It may refer to limitations imposed on people by the constraints of an ableist society (the social model).
English), anapirophobia, anapirism, and disability discrimination) is discrimination and social prejudice against people with disabilities.

Disability studies

crip theoryDisabilities Studiesdisability
Debates about proper terminology and their implied politics continue in disability communities and the academic field of disability studies.
Disability studies is an academic discipline that examines the meaning, nature, and consequences of disability.

Disability rights movement

disability rightsdisabilitydisability access
The discussion over disability's definition arose out of disability activism in the United States and the United Kingdom in the 1970s, which challenged how the medical concept of disability dominated perception and discourse about disabilities.
The disability rights movement is a global social movement to secure equal opportunities and equal rights for all people with disabilities.

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

ADAAmericans with Disabilities ActADA-accessible
For the purposes of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission regulations provide a list of conditions that should easily be concluded to be disabilities: deafness, blindness, an intellectual disability (formerly termed mental retardation), partially or completely missing limbs or mobility impairments requiring the use of a wheelchair, autism, cancer, cerebral palsy, diabetes, epilepsy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia.
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability.

Social model of disability

social modelsocial phenomenona social phenomenon
It may refer to limitations imposed on people by the constraints of an ableist society (the social model).
While physical, sensory, intellectual, or psychological variations may cause individual functional limitation or impairments, these do not have to lead to disability unless society fails to take account of and include people regardless of their individual differences.

Disability benefits

disability benefitsickness benefitdisability income
In some countries, the law requires that disabilities are documented by a healthcare provider in order to assess qualifications for disability benefits.
Disability benefits are funds provided from public or private sources to a person who is ill or who has a disability.

Physiological functional capacity

Medical DisabilityPhysiological functional
Physiological functional capacity (PFC) is a related term that describes an individual's performance level.
This can eventually result in increased incidence of functional disability, increased use of health care services, loss of independence, and reduced quality of life.

Accessibility

accessiblelow-floorwheelchair accessible
Due to this work, physical barriers to access were identified.
Accessibility is the design of products, devices, services, or environments for people with disabilities.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

EEOCEqual Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity
For the purposes of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission regulations provide a list of conditions that should easily be concluded to be disabilities: deafness, blindness, an intellectual disability (formerly termed mental retardation), partially or completely missing limbs or mobility impairments requiring the use of a wheelchair, autism, cancer, cerebral palsy, diabetes, epilepsy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia.
In September 2012, Home Depot agreed to pay $100,000 and furnish other relief to settle a disability discrimination lawsuit filed by the EEOC for the alleged failure to provide reasonable accommodation for a cashier with cancer at its Towson, Maryland, store and for later purportedly firing her because of her condition.

Disability and poverty

disabilitypoverty and disabilityspecial needs in developing countries
For global demographic data on unemployment rates for the disabled, see Disability and poverty. However, there are current programs in place that aid intellectually disabled (ID) people to acquire skills they need in the workforce.
The world's poor are significantly more likely to have or incur a disability within their lifetime compared to more financially privileged populations.

Inclusion (disability rights)

inclusioninclusivecultural rights
The social model of disability sees "disability" as a socially created problem and a matter of the full integration of individuals into society.
Inclusion is a term used by people with disabilities and other disability rights advocates for the idea that all people should take action to freely accommodate people with a physical, mental, cognitive, and or developmental disability.

Health care

healthcarehealth servicesmedical care
In the medical model, medical care is viewed as the main issue, and at the political level, the principal response is that of modifying or reforming healthcare policy.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.

Activities of daily living

daily livinginstrumental activities of daily livingADLs
Basic physical mobility, Domestic life, and Self-care (for example, activities of daily living)
Health professionals often use a person's ability or inability to perform ADLs as a measurement of their functional status, particularly in regard to people post injury, with disabilities and the elderly.

Freak show

circus freakscircus freakfreak shows
The circulation of these concepts is evident in the popularity of the freak show, where showmen profited from exhibiting people who deviated from those norms.
Some scholars have argued that freak shows were also beneficial for people with disabilities, giving them jobs and a steady income, rather than being institutionalized for their disabilities.

Birth defect

congenitalcongenital disorderbirth defects
The moral model refers to the attitude that people are morally responsible for their own disability. For example, disability may be seen as a result of bad actions of parents if congenital, or as a result of practicing witchcraft if not. Echoes of this can be seen in the doctrine of karma in Indian religions. It also includes notions that a disability gives a person "special abilities to perceive, reflect, transcend, be spiritual".
Birth defects may result in disabilities that may be physical, intellectual, or developmental.

Assistive technology

assistive technologiesassistive deviceadaptive technology
Assistive Technology is a generic term for devices and modifications (for a person or within a society) that help overcome or remove a disability.
Assistive technology is an umbrella term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for people with disabilities or elderly population while also including the process used in selecting, locating, and using them.

Wheelchair

wheelchairswheel chairwheelchair access
The first recorded example of the use of a prosthesis dates to at least 1800 BC. The wheelchair dates from the 17th century.
A wheelchair is a chair with wheels, used when walking is difficult or impossible due to illness, injury, or disability.

Minority group

minorityminoritiesethnic minorities
Disabled people who are also racial minorities generally have less access to support and are more vulnerable to violent discrimination.
Minority group membership is typically based on differences in observable characteristics or practices, such as: sex, ethnicity, race, religion, disability, or sexual orientation.

Frailty syndrome

frailtymedically frailFrail elderly
PFC declines with advancing age to result in frailty, cognitive disorders or physical disorders, all of which may lead to labeling individuals as disabled.
Disability

Standing frame

standing frames
Other examples are standing frames, text telephones, accessible keyboards, large print, Braille, & speech recognition software.
Standers are used by people with mild to severe disabilities such as spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, spina bifida, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, stroke, Rett syndrome, and post-polio syndrome.

Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologists
The concept of the "norm" developed in this time period, and is signaled in the work of the Belgian statistician, sociologist, mathematician, and astronomer Adolphe Quetelet, who wrote in the 1830s of l'homme moyen – the average man.
The sociology of health and illness focuses on the social effects of, and public attitudes toward, illnesses, diseases, mental health and disabilities.

Paralympic Games

paralympicParalympic sportParalympian
The Paralympic Games (meaning "alongside the Olympics") are held after the (Summer and Winter) Olympics.
The Paralympics is a major international multi-sport event involving athletes with a range of disabilities, including impaired muscle power (e.g. paraplegia and quadriplegia, muscular dystrophy, post-polio syndrome, spina bifida), impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency (e.g. amputation or dysmelia), leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, vision impairment and intellectual impairment.