Discontinuity (linguistics)wikipedia
In linguistics, a discontinuity occurs when a given word or phrase is separated from another word or phrase that it modifies in such a manner that a direct connection cannot be established between the two without incurring crossing lines in the tree structure.
discontinuitydiscontinuitieslong-distance dependencies

Scrambling (linguistics)

scramblingunbounded scramblingword scrambling
There are various types of discontinuities, the most prominent and widely studied of these being topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition.
Scrambling often (but not always) results in a discontinuity; the scrambled expression appears at a distance from its head in such a manner that crossing lines are present in the syntactic tree.

Topicalization

topicalizationtopicalizednon-topicalised
There are various types of discontinuities, the most prominent and widely studied of these being topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition.
Topicalization often results in a discontinuity and is thus one of a number of established discontinuity types (the other three being wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition).

Extraposition

extraposition
There are various types of discontinuities, the most prominent and widely studied of these being topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition.
Extraposing a constituent results in a discontinuity and in this regard, it is unlike shifting, which does not generate a discontinuity.

Wh-movement

wh-movementwh''-frontingwh-fronting
There are various types of discontinuities, the most prominent and widely studied of these being topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition.
Wh-movement often results in a discontinuity, and in that regard, it is one of (at least) four widely acknowledged discontinuity types, the others being topicalization, scrambling, and extraposition.

Inversion (linguistics)

inversioninvertedinverting
Discontinuities should be distinguished from inversion and shifting, two mechanisms that result in non-canonical word order but that do not necessarily incur discontinuities depending on the theory of sentence structure one assumes (e.g. dependency- or constituency-based).
When a layered constituency-based analysis of sentence structure is used, inversion often results in the discontinuity of a constituent, but that would not be the case with a flatter dependency-based analysis.

Syntactic movement

movementtracesyntactic movement
Modern theories of transformational grammar (e.g. Government and Binding Theory and the Minimalist Program ) assume a movement or copying procedure that moves or copies constituents out of one position into another in the course of the derivation.
Syntactic movement is the means by which some theories of syntax address discontinuities.

Shifting (syntax)

shifting
Discontinuities should be distinguished from inversion and shifting, two mechanisms that result in non-canonical word order but that do not necessarily incur discontinuities depending on the theory of sentence structure one assumes (e.g. dependency- or constituency-based).
If one assumes relatively flat structures, shifting does not result in a discontinuity.

Dependency grammar

dependency grammardependentdependency
Discontinuities should be distinguished from inversion and shifting, two mechanisms that result in non-canonical word order but that do not necessarily incur discontinuities depending on the theory of sentence structure one assumes (e.g. dependency- or constituency-based).
A negative result of this focus on hierarchical order, however, is that there is a dearth of dependency-based explorations of particular word order phenomena, such as of standard discontinuities.

Branching (linguistics)

branchingleft-branchingright-branching
It is motivated by the desire to focus or emphasize the extraposed expression, or it serves to reduce center embedding and in doing so, it increases right-branching, right-branching structures being easier to process in English than left-branching structures:
Worth noting in this area is that the more layered the syntactic structures are, the more discontinuities can occur, which means the component of the theory that addresses discontinuities must play a greater role.

Argument (linguistics)

argumentargumentsverb argument
The topicalization of argument NPs is rare in English, but adjunct prepositional phrases (PPs) that establish situational context are frequently topicalized.
Theories of binding, coordination, discontinuities, ellipsis, etc. must acknowledge and build on the distinction.

Negative inversion

negative inversion
As with subject-auxiliary inversion in general, negative inversion results in a discontinuity and so is a problem for theories of syntax.

Pied-piping

pied-pipingpied-piped
Pied-piping is an aspect of discontinuities in syntax, having to do with the constituents that can and cannot be discontinuous.

Movement paradox

movement paradox
The importance of movement paradoxes is emphasized by those theories of syntax (e.g. lexical functional grammar, head-driven phrase structure grammar, construction grammar, most dependency grammars) that reject movement, i.e. the notion that discontinuities in syntax are explained by the movement of constituents.

Deep linguistic processing

deep linguistic processing
Deep linguistic processing approaches differ from "shallower" methods in that they yield more expressive and structural representations which directly capture long-distance dependencies and underlying predicate-argument structures.

Catena (linguistics)

catenacatenae
The catena concept was introduced to linguistics by William O'Grady in 1998 and has been seized upon by other linguists and applied to the syntax of idiosyncratic meaning of all sorts, such as ellipsis mechanisms (e.g. gapping, stripping, VP-ellipsis, pseudogapping, sluicing, answer ellipsis, comparative deletion), predicate-argument structures, and discontinuities (topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, extraposition, etc.).

Predicate (grammar)

predicatepredicatespredication
Barring a discontinuity, predicates and their arguments are always catenae in dependency structures.

X-bar theory

X-bar schemaX-bar TheoryX-bar theoretic
The number of potential discontinuities increases, which increases the role of movement up the tree (in a derivational theory, e.g. Government and Binding Theory) or feature passing up and down the tree (in a representational theory, e.g. Lexical Functional Grammar).

Government (linguistics)

governorgovernmentgovern
The understanding of these concepts becomes difficult, however, when discontinuities are involved.

Subject–auxiliary inversion

subject–auxiliary inversionsubject-auxiliary inversioninversion
What this means is that in one sense or another, a discontinuity is present in the structure.

Phrase

phrasephrasesphrasal
In linguistics, a discontinuity occurs when a given word or phrase is separated from another word or phrase that it modifies in such a manner that a direct connection cannot be established between the two without incurring crossing lines in the tree structure.

Phrase structure grammar

phrase structure grammarphrase structureconstituency grammar
Discontinuities should be distinguished from inversion and shifting, two mechanisms that result in non-canonical word order but that do not necessarily incur discontinuities depending on the theory of sentence structure one assumes (e.g. dependency- or constituency-based).