Discourse analysis

discoursediscourse analystDiscourse Studiesanalysisanalysis of discoursebasic construction beyond the sentence leveldiscourse comprehensiondiscourse informationdiscourse structurediscourse theory
Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is the approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event.wikipedia
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Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
Discourse analysis has been taken up in a variety of disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, including linguistics, education, sociology, anthropology, social work, cognitive psychology, social psychology, area studies, cultural studies, international relations, human geography, communication studies, biblical studies, and translation studies, each of which is subject to its own assumptions, dimensions of analysis, and methodologies.
The study of parole (which manifests through cultural discourses and dialects) is the domain of sociolinguistics, the sub-discipline that comprises the study of a complex system of linguistic facets within a certain speech community (governed by its own set of grammatical rules and laws).

Text linguistics

textologytext linguist
Text linguistics is a closely related field.
In general it is an application of discourse analysis at the much broader level of text, rather than just a sentence or word.

Discourse

discursivediscursivelylanguage
The objects of discourse analysis (discourse, writing, conversation, communicative event) are variously defined in terms of coherent sequences of sentences, propositions, speech, or turns-at-talk.
In semantics and discourse analysis: Discourse is a conceptual generalization of conversation within each modality and context of communication.

Anthropology

anthropologistanthropologicalanthropologists
Discourse analysis has been taken up in a variety of disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, including linguistics, education, sociology, anthropology, social work, cognitive psychology, social psychology, area studies, cultural studies, international relations, human geography, communication studies, biblical studies, and translation studies, each of which is subject to its own assumptions, dimensions of analysis, and methodologies.
Linguistic anthropologists often draw on related fields including sociolinguistics, pragmatics, cognitive linguistics, semiotics, discourse analysis, and narrative analysis.

Social science

social sciencessocial scientistsocial
Discourse analysis has been taken up in a variety of disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, including linguistics, education, sociology, anthropology, social work, cognitive psychology, social psychology, area studies, cultural studies, international relations, human geography, communication studies, biblical studies, and translation studies, each of which is subject to its own assumptions, dimensions of analysis, and methodologies.
However, language does not exist in a vacuum, or only in the brain, and approaches like contact linguistics, creole studies, discourse analysis, social interactional linguistics, and sociolinguistics explore language in its social context.

Intonation (linguistics)

intonationintonationalintonations
The various levels or dimensions of discourse, such as sounds (intonation, etc.), gestures, syntax, the lexicon, style, rhetoric, meanings, speech acts, moves, strategies, turns, and other aspects of interaction
An influential development in British studies of intonation has been Discourse Intonation, an offshoot of Discourse Analysis first put forward by David Brazil.

Stylistics

stylestylistichigh style
The various levels or dimensions of discourse, such as sounds (intonation, etc.), gestures, syntax, the lexicon, style, rhetoric, meanings, speech acts, moves, strategies, turns, and other aspects of interaction
Stylistics as a conceptual discipline may attempt to establish principles capable of explaining particular choices made by individuals and social groups in their use of language, such as in the literary production and reception of genre, the study of folk art, in the study of spoken dialects and registers, and can be applied to areas such as discourse analysis as well as literary criticism.

Zellig Harris

HarrisZellig S. HarrisHarris, Zellig Sabbetai
However, the term first came into general use following the publication of a series of papers by Zellig Harris from 1952 reporting on work from which he developed transformational grammar in the late 1930s.
Originally a Semiticist, he is best known for his work in structural linguistics and discourse analysis and for the discovery of transformational structure in language.

Cultural studies

cultural theoryculturalcultural theorist
Discourse analysis has been taken up in a variety of disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, including linguistics, education, sociology, anthropology, social work, cognitive psychology, social psychology, area studies, cultural studies, international relations, human geography, communication studies, biblical studies, and translation studies, each of which is subject to its own assumptions, dimensions of analysis, and methodologies.
Discourse analysis

Robert E. Longacre

In the meantime, Kenneth Lee Pike, a professor at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, taught the theory, and one of his students, Robert E. Longacre developed it in his writings.
Robert E. Longacre (August 13, 1922–April 20, 2014) was an American linguist and missionary who worked on the Triqui language and a text-based theory and method of discourse analysis.

Rhetoric

rhetoricianrhetoricalrhetor
The various levels or dimensions of discourse, such as sounds (intonation, etc.), gestures, syntax, the lexicon, style, rhetoric, meanings, speech acts, moves, strategies, turns, and other aspects of interaction
It is important to note that the object of rhetorical analysis is typically discourse, and therefore the principles of "rhetorical analysis" would be difficult to distinguish from those of "discourse analysis".

Humanities

HumanityArtshumanistic
Discourse analysis has been taken up in a variety of disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, including linguistics, education, sociology, anthropology, social work, cognitive psychology, social psychology, area studies, cultural studies, international relations, human geography, communication studies, biblical studies, and translation studies, each of which is subject to its own assumptions, dimensions of analysis, and methodologies.
Discourse analysis

Psycholinguistics

psycholinguisticpsycholinguistPsycholinguists
In the late 1960s and 1970s, and without reference to this prior work, a variety of other approaches to a new cross-discipline of DA began to develop in most of the humanities and social sciences concurrently with, and related to, other disciplines, such as semiotics, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, and pragmatics.
Hence, it is studied by researchers from a variety of different backgrounds, such as psychology, cognitive science, linguistics, speech and language pathology, and discourse analysis.

Discursive psychology

discursive analysisdiscursiveDiscursive frames
Discursive psychology
Discursive psychology (DP) is a form of discourse analysis that focuses on psychological themes in talk, text, and images.

Critical discourse analysis

critical linguisticscritical linguist
Critical discourse analysis
In this sense, it differs from discourse analysis in that it highlights issues of power asymmetries, manipulation, exploitation, and structural inequities in domains such as education.

Interactional sociolinguistics

Interactional sociolinguistsinteractionalinteractional skills
Interactional sociolinguistics
Interactional sociolinguistics is a subdiscipline of linguistics that uses discourse analysis to study how language users create meaning via social interaction.

Interactional linguistics

emergent grammaremergence of syntactic structure
The relations between discourse and the emergence of syntactic structure
Interactional linguistics has developed in linguistic discourse analysis and conversation analysis, and is used to investigate the relationship between grammatical structure and real-time interaction and language use.

Essex School of discourse analysis

Essex School of discourse analysis
The Essex School constitutes a variety of discourse analysis, one that combines theoretical sophistication – mainly due to its reliance on the post-structuralist and psychoanalytic traditions and, in particular, on the work of Lacan, Foucault, Barthes, Derrida, etc. – with analytical precision, since it focuses predominantly on an in-depth analysis of political discourses in late modernity.

Michel Foucault

FoucaultFoucauldianstate racism
Michel Foucault translated it into French.
They claim that through discourse analysis, hierarchies may be uncovered and questioned by way of analyzing the corresponding fields of knowledge through which they are legitimated.

Foucauldian discourse analysis

discourse analysisdiscourse theoryFoucauldian analysis
Foucauldian discourse analysis
Foucauldian discourse analysis is a form of discourse analysis, focusing on power relationships in society as expressed through language and practices, and based on the theories of Michel Foucault.

Applied linguistics

applied linguistappliedapplied linguistic
Applied linguistics, an interdisciplinary perspective on linguistic analysis
Major branches of applied linguistics include bilingualism and multilingualism, conversation analysis, contrastive linguistics, sign linguistics, language assessment, literacies, discourse analysis, language pedagogy, second language acquisition, language planning and policy, interlinguistics, stylistics, pragmatics, forensic linguistics and translation.

Conversation analysis

conversationanalysis of conversationsconversation analysts
The objects of discourse analysis (discourse, writing, conversation, communicative event) are variously defined in terms of coherent sequences of sentences, propositions, speech, or turns-at-talk.
It is particularly influential in interactional sociolinguistics, discourse analysis and discursive psychology.

Policy analysis

policy analystpolicy analystsanalyst
Policy analysis requires discourse analysis to be effective from the post-positivist perspective.
Discourse analysis

Sociology of knowledge approach to discourse

Here, for example, the sociologist Reiner Keller developed his widely recognized 'Sociology of Knowledge Approach to Discourse (SKAD)'.
Keller combines this approach with Michel Foucault's discourse theory, whose work responsible for the prominent role of discourse concepts in social science and inspired several approaches to discourse analysis in other scientific disciplines.

Naomi Sager

Harris's methodology disclosing the correlation of form with meaning was developed into a system for the computer-aided analysis of natural language by a team led by Naomi Sager at NYU, which has been applied to a number of sublanguage domains, most notably to medical informatics.
In particular, the team drew on Zellig Harris's discourse analysis methodology to develop a system for computer analysis of natural language.