Discovery Expedition

The expedition ship RRS Discovery in the Antarctic alongside the Great Ice Barrier, now known as the Ross Ice Shelf
Sir James Clark Ross, discoverer of the Ross Sea, the Ross Ice Shelf and McMurdo Sound
Captain Robert Falcon Scott, appointed leader of the Discovery Expedition
Ernest Shackleton, Third Officer on the Discovery
Royal Doulton bone china plate from the expedition, marked ""DISCOVERY" ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION 1901" around a penguin. Brought back by C Reginald Ford.
The ship's bell of S.S. Discovery
General view of the huts
Shackleton, Scott and Wilson on 3 February 1903, on their return from the attempt to reach the South Pole
A modern photograph of the Discovery's old anchorage in Winter Quarters Bay, McMurdo Sound, alongside the Hut Point hut in the right background
Emperor penguins. The colony at Cape Crozier had been discovered by a party led by Charles Royds, in October 1902.
Drawing of two emperor penguins with chicks by Wilson (Sept. 1903)
The Dry Valleys in the western mountains of Victoria Land, discovered during the expedition's western journey.
The Vince memorial cross, erected on the Hut Point promontory

The first official British exploration of the Antarctic regions since the voyage of James Clark Ross sixty years earlier .

- Discovery Expedition

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Ross Ice Shelf

Largest ice shelf of Antarctica .

Ross Ice Shelf situated between Marie Byrd Land and Victoria Land
Crevasse, Ross Ice Shelf in 2001
"The mystic Barrier" at Bay of Whales, near where Amundsen first encountered it. Note humans for size comparison (dark spots next to the large chunk of sea ice at left image border). RV Nathaniel B. Palmer is in the distance.
Ross Ice Shelf edge in 1997
Glacier-ice shelf interactions
Main drill site for the New Zealand 2017 hot water drill camp on the Ross Ice Shelf

In a first exploration of the area by the Discovery Expedition in 1901–1904, Robert Falcon Scott made a significant study of the shelf and its surroundings from his expedition's base on Ross Island.

Transantarctic Mountains

The Transantarctic Mountains (abbreviated TAM) comprise a mountain range of uplifted (primarily sedimentary) rock in Antarctica which extend, with some interruptions, across the continent from Cape Adare in northern Victoria Land to Coats Land.

Map of the Transantarctic Mountains
Aerial view of the Dugdale Glacier in 1957
Mount Herschel (3,335 m) in the Admiralty Mountains subrange, as seen from Cape Hallett
David Glacier with the Drygalski Ice Tongue in the far distance
Byrd Glacier from Landsat
The Thiel Mountains

It was first crossed during the British National Antarctic Expedition of 1901-1904.

South Pole

[[Image:Pole-south.gif|thumb|upright=1.4|1. South Geographic Pole

The Geographic South Pole is marked by the stake on the right.
NASA image showing Antarctica and the South Pole in 2005
The Ceremonial South Pole in 1998.
The Ceremonial South Pole as of February 2008.
Garmin GPS receiver showing 90 Deg South – the South Pole
Argentinian soldiers saluting the flag after erecting the pole in 1965
Amundsen's party at the South Pole, December 1911. From left to right: Amundsen, Hanssen, Hassel and Wisting (photo by fifth member Bjaaland).

British explorer Robert Falcon Scott on the Discovery Expedition of 1901–1904 was the first to attempt to find a route from the Antarctic coastline to the South Pole.

Edward Wilson (explorer)

English polar explorer, ornithologist, natural historian, physician and artist.

Shackleton, Scott and Wilson, on 2 November 1902
The great ice barrier – looking east from Cape Crozier, 1911 watercolour by Wilson
Bowers, Wilson and Cherry-Garrard
Wilson, Bowers and Cherry-Garrard after their return
At the South Pole: Wilson, Bowers, Evans, Scott and Oates

From 1901 to 1904, Wilson acted as junior surgeon, zoologist and expedition artist, setting off on the Discovery Expedition on 6 August 1901.

Robert Falcon Scott

Robert Falcon Scott in 1905
Scott, aged 13
Scott as a young man
Shackleton, Scott, and Wilson before their march south during the Discovery expedition, 2 November 1902
Discovery hut at Hut Point
Scott pictured by Daniel A. Wehrschmidt, 1905
Scott's and Amundsen's routes to the South Pole
Scott writing his journal in Scott's Hut at Cape Evans, winter 1911
Terra Nova held up in pack ice, 13 December 1910
Scott's party at the South Pole: Oates, Bowers, Scott, Wilson and Evans
Cairn over the tent containing the bodies of Edward Adrian Wilson, Henry Robertson Bowers and Robert Falcon Scott.
Observation Hill memorial cross, erected in 1913
Scott statue at Portsmouth Historic Dockyard, sculpted by Kathleen Scott
Robert Scott Statue in Christchurch, New Zealand, sculpted by his widow Kathleen Scott
Memorial window in Binton Church, Warwickshire, one of four panels. This one depicts the cairn erected over the site of Scott's last tent

Captain Robert Falcon Scott,, (6 June 1868 – c. 29 March 1912) was a Royal Navy officer and explorer who led two expeditions to the Antarctic regions: the Discovery expedition of 1901–1904 and the ill-fated Terra Nova expedition of 1910–1913.

Antarctic Plateau

Large area of East Antarctica which extends over a diameter of about 1000 km, and includes the region of the geographic South Pole and the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station.

The high, flat, and cold environment of the Antarctic Plateau at Dome C
Surface of Antarctic Plateau, at 150E, 77S

This plateau was first sighted in 1903 during the Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic, which was led by Robert Falcon Scott.

Tom Crean (explorer)

Irish seaman and Antarctic explorer who was awarded the Albert Medal for Lifesaving (AM).

Crean on the Endurance Expedition, February 1915
Aerial view of Hut Point, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica – the location of Discoverys base, in 1902–04
Scott's polar party at 87°S, 31 December 1911, before Crean's return with the last supporting party
Petty officers Edgar Evans and Crean mending sleeping bags (May 1911)
Tom Crean and Edgar Evans exercising ponies, winter 1911
Members of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition aboard Endurance, 1914. Crean is second from the left in the first standing row. Shackleton (wearing soft hat) is in the centre of the picture.
Tom Crean, in full polar travelling gear
Crean and "his" pups
Statue of Crean in Annascaul

In 1901, while serving on Ringarooma in New Zealand, he volunteered to join Scott's 1901–1904 Discovery Expedition to Antarctica, thus beginning his exploring career.

Emperor penguin

Tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species and is endemic to Antarctica.

Adults with chicks
Mounted skeleton at the American Museum of Natural History
Emperor penguin jumping out of the water in Antarctica
Halley Bay Colony in 1999
An emperor penguin colony on Snow Hill Island
Emperor penguin attacked by a leopard seal
Giant petrel and emperor penguin chicks
The life-cycle of the emperor penguin
The egg of the emperor penguin. It is 13.5 × 9.5 cm and vaguely pear-shaped. Muséum de Toulouse
Emperor penguin feeding a chick
Two Adélie penguins and an emperor penguin at SeaWorld San Diego

The Cape Crozier colony on the Ross Sea shrank drastically between the first visits by the Discovery Expedition in 1902–03 and the later visits by the Terra Nova Expedition in 1910–11; it was reduced to a few hundred birds, and may have come close to extinction due to changes in the position of the ice shelf.

Ernest Shackleton

Anglo-Irish Antarctic explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic.

Sir Ernest Shackleton
Blue plaque marking the home of Ernest Shackleton at 12 Westwood Hill, Sydenham, London Borough of Lewisham
Shackleton in 1901, at the age of 27
in Antarctic waters
Robert Falcon Scott
Shackleton's wife, Emily Dorman
South Pole party: Frank Wild, Shackleton, Eric Marshall and Jameson Adams
Captioned "The South Pole", caricature of Shackleton in Vanity Fair, 6 October 1909
Shackleton embarked on an extensive lecture tour in which he talked not only about his own polar journeys but also those of Scott and Roald Amundsen
Shackleton after the loss of Endurance
Launching the from the shore of Elephant Island, 24 April 1916
"All Safe, All Well", allegedly depicting Shackleton's return to Elephant Island, August 1916. A photograph of the departure of the James Caird in April was doctored by photographer Frank Hurley to create this image.
Shackleton's grave at Grytviken
Shackleton statue by C.S. Jagger outside the Royal Geographical Society
Amundsen, Shackleton and Peary in 1913

Shackleton's first experience of the polar regions was as third officer on Captain Robert Falcon Scott's Discovery expedition of 1901–1904, from which he was sent home early on health grounds, after he and his companions Scott and Edward Adrian Wilson set a new southern record by marching to latitude 82°S.

William Speirs Bruce

British naturalist, polar scientist and oceanographer who organized and led the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (SNAE, 1902–04) to the South Orkney Islands and the Weddell Sea.

A drawing illustrating the size of a typical right whale, in relation to the size of a person
Fridtjof Nansen
Prince Albert of Monaco, aboard Princesse Alice, with a dissected cetacean
Sir Clements Markham, President of the Royal Geographical Society
Scotia, anchored at Laurie Island. 1903
Sir John Murray, an early mentor to Bruce
Map of Spitsbergen archipelago (now named Svalbard), showing the islands Prince Charles Foreland, Barentsøya and Edgeøya
An enduring image of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition: Piper Gilbert Kerr, with penguin, photographed by Bruce
Prince Albert of Monaco, aboard Princesse Alice, with a dissected cetacean

In 1899 Bruce, by then Britain's most experienced polar scientist, applied for a post on Robert Falcon Scott's Discovery Expedition, but delays over this appointment and clashes with Royal Geographical Society (RGS) president Sir Clements Markham led him instead to organise his own expedition, and earned him the permanent enmity of the geographical establishment in London.