Disinfectant

disinfectiondisinfectantsdisinfectdisinfectingsanitizerdisinfectedsanitizesanitizationDisinfectorsanitizing
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.wikipedia
483 Related Articles

Endospore

sporeendosporesspores
Disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms, especially resistant bacterial spores; it is less effective than sterilization, which is an extreme physical and/or chemical process that kills all types of life.
They are resistant to ultraviolet radiation, desiccation, high temperature, extreme freezing and chemical disinfectants.

Antibiotic

antibioticsantibacterialtopical antibiotic
Disinfectants are different from other antimicrobial agents such as antibiotics, which destroy microorganisms within the body, and antiseptics, which destroy microorganisms on living tissue.
"Antibacterials" include antiseptic drugs, antibacterial soaps, and chemical disinfectants, whereas antibiotics are an important class of antibacterials used more specifically in medicine and sometimes in livestock feed.

Sterilization (microbiology)

sterilizationsterilesterilized
Disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms, especially resistant bacterial spores; it is less effective than sterilization, which is an extreme physical and/or chemical process that kills all types of life.
Sterilization is distinct from disinfection, sanitization, and pasteurization, in that those methods reduce rather than eliminate all forms of life and biological agents present.

Chlorine

Clchlorine gaschlorinated
In wastewater treatment, a disinfection step with chlorine, ultra-violet (UV) radiation or ozonation can be included as tertiary treatment to remove pathogens from wastewater, for example if it is to be reused to irrigate golf courses. This group comprises aqueous solution of chlorine, hypochlorite, or hypochlorous acid.
The high oxidising potential of elemental chlorine led to the development of commercial bleaches and disinfectants, and a reagent for many processes in the chemical industry.

Antiseptic

antisepsisantisepticsgermicide
Disinfectants are different from other antimicrobial agents such as antibiotics, which destroy microorganisms within the body, and antiseptics, which destroy microorganisms on living tissue.
Antiseptics are generally distinguished from antibiotics by the latter's ability to safely destroy bacteria within the body, and from disinfectants, which destroy microorganisms found on non-living objects.

Bactericide

bactericidalbacteriocidalbacterial death
For this reason, some question the wisdom of impregnating cloths, cutting boards and worktops in the home with bactericidal chemicals.
Bactericides are disinfectants, antiseptics, or antibiotics.

Triethylene glycol

TEG
notatum'') mold fungus using various glycols, principally propylene glycol and triethylene glycol.
When aerosolized it acts as a disinfectant.

Glutaraldehyde

Glutaralglutaraldehyde solutiongluteraldehyde
Aldehydes, such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, have a wide microbiocidal activity and are sporicidal and fungicidal.
Glutaraldehyde, sold under the brandname Cidex and Glutaral among others, is a disinfectant, medication, preservative, and fixative.

Antimicrobial

anti-microbialantimicrobialsantimicrobial agent
Aldehydes, such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, have a wide microbiocidal activity and are sporicidal and fungicidal. Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
The main classes of antimicrobial agents are disinfectants ("nonselective antimicrobials" such as bleach), which kill a wide range of microbes on non-living surfaces to prevent the spread of illness, antiseptics (which are applied to living tissue and help reduce infection during surgery), and antibiotics (which destroy microorganisms within the body).

Sodium hypochlorite

bleachNaOClEau de Javel
The most cost-effective home disinfectant is chlorine bleach (typically a >10% solution of sodium hypochlorite), which is effective against most common pathogens, including disinfectant-resistant organisms such as tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis), hepatitis B and C, fungi, and antibiotic-resistant strains of staphylococcus and enterococcus.
Sodium hypochlorite is most often encountered as a pale greenish-yellow dilute solution commonly known as liquid bleach or simply bleach, a household chemical widely used (since the 18th century) as a disinfectant or a bleaching agent.

Hypochlorous acid

HOClHClOhypochlorite
This group comprises aqueous solution of chlorine, hypochlorite, or hypochlorous acid.
HClO and ClO − are oxidizers, and the primary disinfection agents of chlorine solutions.

Sewage treatment

sewage treatment plantwastewater treatment plantwastewater treatment
In wastewater treatment, a disinfection step with chlorine, ultra-violet (UV) radiation or ozonation can be included as tertiary treatment to remove pathogens from wastewater, for example if it is to be reused to irrigate golf courses.
The purpose of disinfection in the treatment of waste water is to substantially reduce the number of microorganisms in the water to be discharged back into the environment for the later use of drinking, bathing, irrigation, etc. The effectiveness of disinfection depends on the quality of the water being treated (e.g., cloudiness, pH, etc.), the type of disinfection being used, the disinfectant dosage (concentration and time), and other environmental variables.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialEubacteria
In the 1940s and early 1950s, further studies showed inactivation of diverse bacteria, influenza virus, and Penicillium chrysogenum (previously ''P.
Endospores show no detectable metabolism and can survive extreme physical and chemical stresses, such as high levels of UV light, gamma radiation, detergents, disinfectants, heat, freezing, pressure, and desiccation.

Ozone

ozonationO 3 ozone generator
In wastewater treatment, a disinfection step with chlorine, ultra-violet (UV) radiation or ozonation can be included as tertiary treatment to remove pathogens from wastewater, for example if it is to be reused to irrigate golf courses.
During World War I, ozone was tested at Queen Alexandra Military Hospital in London as a possible disinfectant for wounds.

Cutting board

chopping boardcutting boardscheese board
For this reason, some question the wisdom of impregnating cloths, cutting boards and worktops in the home with bactericidal chemicals.
A very diluted bleach solution is best for disinfecting cutting boards.

Chloroxylenol

DettolPCMX
Chloroxylenol, also known as para-chloro-meta-xylenol (PCMX), is an antiseptic and disinfectant which is used for skin disinfection and cleaning surgical instruments.

Hexachlorophene

PhisohexSeptisolAT-7
Hexachlorophene, also known as Nabac, is an organochlorine compound that was once widely used as a disinfectant.

Orthomyxoviridae

influenza virusinfluenza virusesflu virus
In the 1940s and early 1950s, further studies showed inactivation of diverse bacteria, influenza virus, and Penicillium chrysogenum (previously ''P.
They can be inactivated easily by disinfectants and detergents.

Norovirus

Norwalk virusnorovirusesNorovirus acute gastroenteritis
Quaternary Ammonia at or above 200ppm plus Alcohol solutions exhibit efficacy against difficult to kill non-enveloped viruses such as norovirus, rotavirus, or polio virus.
Prevention involves proper hand washing and disinfection of contaminated surfaces.

Electrolysed water

anolyteelectrolyzed water
Both sodium hydroxide and hypochlorous acid are efficient disinfecting agents; as mentioned above, the key to effective sanitation is to have a high proportion of hypochlorous acid present, this happens between acidic and neutral pH conditions.

Monochloramine

chloraminechloramines
It is an colorless liquid at its melting point of, but it is usually handled as a dilute aqueous solution, in which form it is sometimes used as a disinfectant.

Phthalaldehyde

Ortho-phthalaldehydeo''-phthalaldehydeo-phthalaldehyde
Some bacteria have developed resistance to glutaraldehyde, and it has been found that glutaraldehyde can cause asthma and other health hazards, hence ortho-phthalaldehyde is replacing glutaraldehyde.
OPA is commonly used as a high-level disinfectant for medical instruments, commonly sold under the brand names of Cidex OPA or TD-8.

Hypochlorite

ClO − hypochlorinatorNaOCl
This group comprises aqueous solution of chlorine, hypochlorite, or hypochlorous acid.
Their primary applications are as bleaching, disinfection, and water treatment agents, but they are also used in chemistry for chlorination and oxidation reactions.

Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation

UV irradiationultraviolet disinfectionultraviolet light
Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation is the use of high-intensity shortwave ultraviolet light for disinfecting smooth surfaces such as dental tools, but not porous materials that are opaque to the light such as wood or foam.
Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is a disinfection method that uses short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV-C) light to kill or inactivate microorganisms by destroying nucleic acids and disrupting their DNA, leaving them unable to perform vital cellular functions.

Polyaminopropyl biguanide

The biguanide polymer polyaminopropyl biguanide is specifically bactericidal at very low concentrations (10 mg/l).
Polyaminopropyl biguanide (PAPB) is a disinfectant and a preservative used for disinfection on skin and in cleaning solutions for contact lenses.