Dispersion (chemistry)

dispersiondispersionsdisperseddispersedispersion stateagglomeration stateaqueous dispersionschemical dispersiondispersantdisperses
A dispersion is a system in which distributed particles of one material are dispersed in a continuous phase of another material.wikipedia
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Zeta potential

electrokinetic potentialelectrokineticzeta-potential
. When discussing suspensions of solid particles in liquid media, the zeta potential is most often used to quantify the degree of dispersion, with suspensions possessing a high absolute value of zeta potential being considered as well-dispersed.
Zeta potential is a scientific term for electrokinetic potential in colloidal dispersions.

Emulsion

emulsifieremulsifiersemulsions
Aerosols are liquids dispersed in a gas, sols are solids in liquids, emulsions are liquids dispersed in liquids (more specifically a dispersion of two immiscible liquids), and gels are liquids dispersed in solids.
In an emulsion, one liquid (the dispersed phase) is dispersed in the other (the continuous phase).

Mist

fogwoods
Physically, it is an example of a dispersion.

Van der Waals force

van der Waalsvan der Waals forcesvan der Waals interactions
While the two terms are often used interchangeably, according to ISO nanotechnology definitions, an agglomerate is a reversible collection of particles weakly bound, for example by van der Waals forces or physical entanglement, whereas an aggregate is composed of irreversibly bonded or fused particles, for example through covalent bonds.

Oil spill

oil slickoil spillsoil pollution
Chemical dispersants are used in oil spills to mitigate the effects of the spill and promote the degradation of oil particles.
They may rapidly disperse large amounts of certain oil types from the sea surface by transferring it into the water column.

Phase (matter)

phasephasesgas phase
A dispersion is a system in which distributed particles of one material are dispersed in a continuous phase of another material.

State of matter

states of matterstatephysical state
The two phases may be in the same or different states of matter.

Precipitation (chemistry)

precipitateprecipitationprecipitates
Dispersions are classified in a number of different ways, including how large the particles are in relation to the particles of the continuous phase, whether or not precipitation occurs, and the presence of Brownian motion.

Brownian motion

BrownianBrownian movementBrownian particle
Dispersions are classified in a number of different ways, including how large the particles are in relation to the particles of the continuous phase, whether or not precipitation occurs, and the presence of Brownian motion.

Sedimentation

sedimentsedimentssedimentary
In general, dispersions of particles sufficiently large for sedimentation are called suspensions, while those of smaller particles are called colloids and solutions.

Suspension (chemistry)

suspensionsuspensionsaqueous suspension
In general, dispersions of particles sufficiently large for sedimentation are called suspensions, while those of smaller particles are called colloids and solutions.

Colloid

colloidscolloidalcolloid chemistry
In general, dispersions of particles sufficiently large for sedimentation are called suspensions, while those of smaller particles are called colloids and solutions.

Percolation theory

percolation2D percolation clusterpercolative
Therefore, for dispersions, usually percolation theory is assumed to appropriately describe their properties.

Thermodynamic equilibrium

equilibriumequilibrium statelocal thermodynamic equilibrium
However, percolation theory can be applied only if the system it should describe is in or close to thermodynamic equilibrium. Experimental evidence suggests dispersions have a structure very much different from any kind of statistical distribution (which would be characteristics for a system in thermodynamic equilibrium), but in contrast display structures similar to self-organisation, which can be described by non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

Interface (matter)

interfaceinterfacessurface
To understand the formation and properties of such dispersions (incl emulsions), it must be considered that the dispersed phase exhibits a "surface", which is covered ("wet") by a different "surface" that, hence, are forming an interface (chemistry).

Self-organization

self-organizingself-organisationself-organized
Experimental evidence suggests dispersions have a structure very much different from any kind of statistical distribution (which would be characteristics for a system in thermodynamic equilibrium), but in contrast display structures similar to self-organisation, which can be described by non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics

non-equilibriumnonequilibriumnon-equilibrium dynamics
Experimental evidence suggests dispersions have a structure very much different from any kind of statistical distribution (which would be characteristics for a system in thermodynamic equilibrium), but in contrast display structures similar to self-organisation, which can be described by non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

Diffusion

diffusediffusesdiffusive
This process is facilitated by molecular diffusion and convection.

Convection

convectiveconvection currentsconvection current
This process is facilitated by molecular diffusion and convection.

Flocculation

flocculateagglomerationdeflocculant
While the two terms are often used interchangeably, according to ISO nanotechnology definitions, an agglomerate is a reversible collection of particles weakly bound, for example by van der Waals forces or physical entanglement, whereas an aggregate is composed of irreversibly bonded or fused particles, for example through covalent bonds.

Particle aggregation

aggregationaggregateagglomeration
While the two terms are often used interchangeably, according to ISO nanotechnology definitions, an agglomerate is a reversible collection of particles weakly bound, for example by van der Waals forces or physical entanglement, whereas an aggregate is composed of irreversibly bonded or fused particles, for example through covalent bonds.

Covalent bond

covalentcovalentlycovalently bonded
While the two terms are often used interchangeably, according to ISO nanotechnology definitions, an agglomerate is a reversible collection of particles weakly bound, for example by van der Waals forces or physical entanglement, whereas an aggregate is composed of irreversibly bonded or fused particles, for example through covalent bonds.

Solution

solutesolutessolutions
A solution describes a homogeneous mixture of one material dispersed into another.

Tyndall effect

Tyndall scatteringaqueous flareTyndall
Instead, the Tyndall effect is used to distinguish solutions and colloids.