Dissection

dissecteddissectingdissectdissectionsdigital anatomy tabledissect bodiesHistory of dissectionhuman dissectionanatomical dissectionanatomised
Dissection (from Latin dissecare "to cut to pieces"; also called anatomization) is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure.wikipedia
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Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
Less extensive dissection of plants and smaller animals preserved in a formaldehyde solution is typically carried out or demonstrated in biology and natural science classes in middle school and high school, while extensive dissections of cadavers of adults and children, both fresh and preserved are carried out by medical students in medical schools as a part of the teaching in subjects such as anatomy, pathology and forensic medicine.
Investigations by Jan Swammerdam led to new interest in entomology and helped to develop the basic techniques of microscopic dissection and staining.

Autopsy

post-mortemautopsiespost mortem
Autopsy is used in pathology and forensic medicine to determine the cause of death in humans.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause, mode, and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.

Prosection

prosector
This preparation is sometimes called prosection.
A prosection is the dissection of a cadaver (human or animal) or part of a cadaver by an experienced anatomist in order to demonstrate for students anatomic structure.

Galen

Galen of PergamonGalenic medicineGalenus
Galen, for example, dissected the Barbary macaque and other primates, assuming their anatomy was basically the same as that of humans.
His anatomical reports, based mainly on dissection of monkeys however, while dissecting them he discovered that their facial expressions were too much like humans and so he switched to other animals, especially the pigs.

Ibn al-Nafis

Ibn NafisIbn an-NafisAl-Nafis
Islamic physicians such as Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) (1091–1161) in Al-Andalus, Saladin's physician Ibn Jumay during the 12th century, Abd el-Latif in Egypt c. 1200, and Ibn al-Nafis in Syria and Egypt in the 13th century may have practiced dissection, but it remains ambiguous whether or not human dissection was practiced.
As an early anatomist, Ibn al-Nafis also performed several human dissections during the course of his work, making several important discoveries in the fields of physiology and anatomy.

Anatomy

anatomistanatomicalanatomically
Less extensive dissection of plants and smaller animals preserved in a formaldehyde solution is typically carried out or demonstrated in biology and natural science classes in middle school and high school, while extensive dissections of cadavers of adults and children, both fresh and preserved are carried out by medical students in medical schools as a part of the teaching in subjects such as anatomy, pathology and forensic medicine.
Methods used include dissection, in which a body is opened and its organs studied, and endoscopy, in which a video camera-equipped instrument is inserted through a small incision in the body wall and used to explore the internal organs and other structures.

Mondino de Luzzi

Mondino de LiuzziMondino de' LiuzziMondino
Mondino de Luzzi carried out the first recorded public dissection around 1315.
He is often credited as the restorer of anatomy because he made seminal contributions to the field by reintroducing the practice of public dissection of human cadavers and writing the first modern anatomical text.

Pathology

pathologistpathologicalpathologies
Less extensive dissection of plants and smaller animals preserved in a formaldehyde solution is typically carried out or demonstrated in biology and natural science classes in middle school and high school, while extensive dissections of cadavers of adults and children, both fresh and preserved are carried out by medical students in medical schools as a part of the teaching in subjects such as anatomy, pathology and forensic medicine. Autopsy is used in pathology and forensic medicine to determine the cause of death in humans.

Ancient Greek medicine

Greek physicianGreek medicineMedicine in ancient Greece
Human dissections were carried out by the Greek physicians Herophilus of Chalcedon and Erasistratus of Chios in the early part of the third century BC.
His anatomical reports, based mainly on dissection of monkeys, especially the Barbary macaque, and pigs, remained uncontested until 1543, when printed descriptions and illustrations of human dissections were published in the seminal work De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius where Galen's physiological theory was accommodated to these new observations.

Body snatching

body snatchersbody-snatchersbody-snatching
A thriving black market arose in cadavers and body parts, leading to the creation of the profession of body snatching, and the infamous Burke and Hare murders in 1828, when 16 people were murdered for their cadavers, to be sold to anatomists.
A common purpose of body snatching, especially in the 19th century, was to sell the corpses for dissection or anatomy lectures in medical schools.

Burke and Hare murders

Burke and HareWilliam BurkeWilliam Hare
A thriving black market arose in cadavers and body parts, leading to the creation of the profession of body snatching, and the infamous Burke and Hare murders in 1828, when 16 people were murdered for their cadavers, to be sold to anatomists.
They were undertaken by William Burke and William Hare, who sold the corpses to Robert Knox for dissection at his anatomy lectures.

Cadaver

corpsecadaverscorpses
Less extensive dissection of plants and smaller animals preserved in a formaldehyde solution is typically carried out or demonstrated in biology and natural science classes in middle school and high school, while extensive dissections of cadavers of adults and children, both fresh and preserved are carried out by medical students in medical schools as a part of the teaching in subjects such as anatomy, pathology and forensic medicine.

Antonio del Pollaiuolo

Antonio del PollaioloAntonio PollaiuoloAntonio
Though most chose to focus on the external surfaces of the body, some like Michelangelo Buonarotti, Antonio del Pollaiolo, Baccio Bandinelli, and Leonardo da Vinci sought a deeper understanding.
Their work shows both classical influences and an interest in human anatomy; reportedly, the brothers carried out dissections to improve their knowledge of the subject.

Anatomy Act 1832

Anatomy ActAnatomy Act of 1832Anatomy Bill
The resulting public outcry led to the passage of the Anatomy Act 1832, which increased the legal supply of cadavers for dissection.
The Anatomy Act 1832 (2 & 3 Will. IV c.75) is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that gave freer licence to doctors, teachers of anatomy and bona fide medical students to dissect donated bodies.

Fetal pig

fetal pigs
Other popular animals for high-school dissection at the time of that survey were, among vertebrates, fetal pigs, perch, and cats; and among invertebrates, earthworms, grasshoppers, crayfish, and starfish.
Fetal pigs are unborn pigs used in elementary as well as advanced biology classes as objects for dissection.

Barbary macaque

Barbary apeMacaca sylvanusBarbary apes
Galen, for example, dissected the Barbary macaque and other primates, assuming their anatomy was basically the same as that of humans.
Many of the mistaken ideas about human anatomy contained in the writings of Galen are apparently due to his use of these animals, the only anthropoid available to him, in dissections.

J. W. Mitchell High School

J.W. Mitchell High SchoolJames W. Mitchell High School
To overcome these concerns, J. W. Mitchell High School in New Port Richey, Florida, in 2019 became the first US high school to use synthetic frogs for dissection in its science classes, instead of preserved real frogs.
The school gained nationwide publicity in 2019 when its science lab classes were the first in the US to use synthetic frogs for dissection, instead of preserved real frogs.

Leonardo da Vinci

Da VinciLeonardoLéonard de Vinci
Though most chose to focus on the external surfaces of the body, some like Michelangelo Buonarotti, Antonio del Pollaiolo, Baccio Bandinelli, and Leonardo da Vinci sought a deeper understanding.
As a successful artist, Leonardo was given permission to dissect human corpses at the Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova in Florence and later at hospitals in Milan and Rome.

Galeazzo di Santa Sofia

The Italian Galeazzo di Santa Sofia made the first public dissection north of the Alps in Vienna in 1404.
He was called to Vienna where he introduced anatomy as a subject of study and in 1404 made the first dissection north of the Alps.

1788 doctors' riot

Doctors Mob RiotDoctors' Riotanatomy riots
*1788 Doctors' riot in New York City
Taboos associated with the violation of corpses made it difficult to procure cadavers for dissection and study, and many students and doctors would exhume bodies from the nearby graveyards because of the socially-marginalized status of their occupants.

Frog

frogsAnuraanuran
By 1988, some 75 to 80 percent of American high school biology students were participating in a frog dissection, with a trend towards introduction in elementary schools.
Frogs are used for dissections in high school and university anatomy classes, often first being injected with coloured substances to enhance contrasts among the biological systems.

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
Dissection (from Latin dissecare "to cut to pieces"; also called anatomization) is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure.

Medical jurisprudence

forensic medicinelegal medicinemedicolegal
Autopsy is used in pathology and forensic medicine to determine the cause of death in humans.

Formaldehyde

formalinH 2 COmethanal
Less extensive dissection of plants and smaller animals preserved in a formaldehyde solution is typically carried out or demonstrated in biology and natural science classes in middle school and high school, while extensive dissections of cadavers of adults and children, both fresh and preserved are carried out by medical students in medical schools as a part of the teaching in subjects such as anatomy, pathology and forensic medicine.

Natural science

natural sciencesnaturalnatural scientist
Less extensive dissection of plants and smaller animals preserved in a formaldehyde solution is typically carried out or demonstrated in biology and natural science classes in middle school and high school, while extensive dissections of cadavers of adults and children, both fresh and preserved are carried out by medical students in medical schools as a part of the teaching in subjects such as anatomy, pathology and forensic medicine.