Disseminated intravascular coagulation

DICdefibrination syndromedisseminated intravascular coagulopathyintravascular coagulationconsumptive coagulopathydiffuse intravascular coagulationbleeding from all orificesblood clottingD.I.C.defibrination
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clots form throughout the body, blocking small blood vessels.wikipedia
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Sepsis

septicaemiablood poisoningseptic
Relatively common causes include sepsis, surgery, major trauma, cancer, and complications of pregnancy.
Signs of established sepsis include confusion, metabolic acidosis (which may be accompanied by a faster breathing rate that leads to respiratory alkalosis), low blood pressure due to decreased systemic vascular resistance, higher cardiac output, and disorders in blood-clotting that may lead to organ failure.

HELLP syndrome

HELLP
Liver disease, HELLP syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/Haemolytic uremic syndrome, and malignant hypertension may mimic DIC but do not occur via the same pathways.
Complications may include disseminated intravascular coagulation, placental abruption, and kidney failure.

D-dimer

D dimerD-dimer titrationquantitative D-dimer
Findings may include low platelets, low fibrinogen, high INR, or high D-dimer.
In addition, it is used in the diagnosis of the blood disorder disseminated intravascular coagulation.

Thrombocytopenia

low platelet countthrombocytopaenialow platelets
Findings may include low platelets, low fibrinogen, high INR, or high D-dimer.

Placental abruption

abruptio placentaeabruptionabruptio placenta
Complications for the mother can include disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and kidney failure.

Septic abortion

septic miscarriage
Septic shock may lead to kidney failure, bleeding diathesis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

Acute promyelocytic leukemia

acute promyelocytic leukaemiapromyelocytic leukemiaAcute Promyeloid Leukaemia
In acute promyelocytic leukemia, treatment causes the destruction of leukemic granulocyte precursors, resulting in the release of large amounts of proteolytic enzymes from their storage granules, causing microvascular damage.

Pre-eclampsia

preeclampsiatoxemiatoxemia of pregnancy
Physiologically, research has linked pre-eclampsia to the following physiologic changes: alterations in the interaction between the maternal immune response and the placenta, placental injury, endothelial cell injury, altered vascular reactivity, oxidative stress, imbalance among vasoactive substances, decreased intravascular volume, and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

Rhabdomyolysis

muscle breakdownrapid muscle breakdownbreakdown of skeletal muscle
Complications may include high blood potassium, low blood calcium, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and compartment syndrome.

Cryoprecipitate

cryo-precipitatedCryoprecipitated AHFcryoprecipitation
Other measures may include giving platelets, cryoprecipitate, or fresh frozen plasma.

Kasabach–Merritt syndrome

Kasabach-Merritt syndromeHemangioma thrombocytopenia syndrome
This consumptive coagulopathy also uses up clotting factors, such as fibrinogen which may worsen bleeding.

Fibrinogen

β-fibrinogenI (fibrinogen)Afibrinogenemia
Findings may include low platelets, low fibrinogen, high INR, or high D-dimer.
Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is a deficiency in circulating fibrinogen due to excessive consumption that may occur as a result of trauma, certain phases of disseminated intravascular coagulation, and sepsis.

Fibrinolysis

fibrinolyticfibrinolytic factorfibrinolytic system
Under homeostatic conditions, the body is maintained in a finely tuned balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis.
It is therefore used to indicate deep-vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, DIC and efficacy of treatment in acute myocardial infarction.

Thrombus

blood clotblood clotsclot
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clots form throughout the body, blocking small blood vessels.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) involves widespread microthrombi formation throughout the majority of the blood vessels.

Schistocyte

schistocyteshelmet cellsred blood cell fragmentation
Several microangiopathic diseases, including disseminated intravascular coagulation and thrombotic microangiopathies, generate fibrin strands that sever red blood cells as they try to move past a thrombus, creating schistocytes.

Amniotic fluid embolism

embolism, amniotic fluidAFEamniotic embolism
The onset of DIC can be sudden, as in endotoxic shock or amniotic fluid embolism, or it may be insidious and chronic, as in cancer.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation occurs and results in serious bleeding.

Fibrin degradation product

fibrin degradation productsFibrin split productsFibrin split product
The breakdown of fibrinogen and fibrin results in polypeptides called fibrin degradation products (FDPs) or fibrin split products (FSPs).
Fibrin and fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) testing is commonly used to diagnose disseminated intravascular coagulation.

Thrombotic microangiopathy

thrombotic microangiopathiesblood clots forming in small blood vessels
Other conditions with TMA include atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, scleroderma renal crisis, malignant hypertension,

Platelet

plateletsplatelet aggregationplatelet count
As clotting factors and platelets are used up, bleeding may occur.
Regulatory defects in immunothrombosis are suspected to be major factor in causing pathological thrombosis in many forms, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) or deep vein thrombosis.

Coagulation

blood clottingblood coagulationclotting
As clotting factors and platelets are used up, bleeding may occur.
Decreased platelet numbers (thrombocytopenia) is due insufficient production (e.g., myelodysplastic syndrome or other bone marrow disorders), destruction by the immune system (immune thrombocytopenic purpura/ITP), or consumption (e.g., thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/TTP, hemolytic-uremic syndrome/HUS, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria/PNH, disseminated intravascular coagulation/DIC, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia/HIT).

Prothrombin time

INRinternational normalized ratioPT
Findings may include low platelets, low fibrinogen, high INR, or high D-dimer.
In addition, poor factor VII synthesis (due to liver disease) or increased consumption (in disseminated intravascular coagulation) may prolong the PT.

Lipopolysaccharide

endotoxinLPSlipopolysaccharides
For example, TF is released in response to exposure to cytokines (particularly interleukin 1), tumor necrosis factor, and endotoxin.
High bacterial proliferation triggering destructive endothelial damage can also lead to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with loss of function of certain internal organs such as the kidneys, adrenal glands and lungs due to compromised blood supply.

Red blood cell

red blood cellserythrocyteserythroid
* Several microangiopathic diseases, including disseminated intravascular coagulation and thrombotic microangiopathies, present with pathognomonic (diagnostic) red blood cell fragments called schistocytes.

Protein C

activated protein CPROCproteins C
Recombinant human activated protein C was previously recommended in those with severe sepsis and DIC, but drotrecogin alfa has been shown to confer no benefit and was withdrawn from the market in 2011.
If a fetus is homozygous or compound heterozygous for the deficiency, there may be a presentation of purpura fulminans, severe disseminated intravascular coagulation and simultaneous venous thromboembolism in the womb; this is very severe and usually fatal.