Dissociation (psychology)

dissociationdissociativedissociative statedissociatedissociateddissociated statedisassociationdisassociativeDissociative disordersdissociative experiences
Dissociation is any of a wide array of experiences from mild detachment from immediate surroundings to more severe detachment from physical and emotional experiences.wikipedia
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Dissociative disorder

dissociative disordersdissociativedisassociative disorder
More pathological dissociation involves dissociative disorders, including dissociative fugue and depersonalization disorder with or without alterations in personal identity or sense of self. The ICD-10 classifies conversion disorder as a dissociative disorder.
People with dissociative disorders use dissociation as a defense mechanism, pathologically and involuntarily.

Daydream

daydreamingdaydreamsday dreaming
At the non-pathological end of the continuum, dissociation describes common events such as daydreaming.
However, the characteristic that is common to all forms of daydreaming meets the criteria for mild dissociation.

Derealization

derealisationunrealityFeeling unreal
These alterations can include: a sense that self or the world is unreal (depersonalization and derealization); a loss of memory (amnesia); forgetting identity or assuming a new self (fugue); and separate streams of consciousness, identity and self (dissociative identity disorder, formerly termed multiple personality disorder) and complex post-traumatic stress disorder.
It is a dissociative symptom of many conditions including severe stress, trauma, depression and anxiety.

Depersonalization disorder

Depersonalisation disorderDepersonalization syndromedepersonalisation/derealisation disorder
More pathological dissociation involves dissociative disorders, including dissociative fugue and depersonalization disorder with or without alterations in personal identity or sense of self.
A diagnosis is made when the dissociation is persistent and interferes with the social and/or occupational functions of daily life.

Dissociative identity disorder

multiple personality disordermultiple personalitiessplit personality
These alterations can include: a sense that self or the world is unreal (depersonalization and derealization); a loss of memory (amnesia); forgetting identity or assuming a new self (fugue); and separate streams of consciousness, identity and self (dissociative identity disorder, formerly termed multiple personality disorder) and complex post-traumatic stress disorder.
Dissociation, the term that underlies the dissociative disorders including DID, lacks a precise, empirical, and generally agreed upon definition.

Coping

coping mechanismcoping strategiescope
In mild cases, dissociation can be regarded as a coping mechanism or defense mechanisms in seeking to master, minimize or tolerate stress – including boredom or conflict.
Examples of maladaptive behavior strategies include dissociation, sensitization, safety behaviors, anxious avoidance, and escape (including self-medication).

Fugue state

dissociative fuguepsychogenic fuguefugue
More pathological dissociation involves dissociative disorders, including dissociative fugue and depersonalization disorder with or without alterations in personal identity or sense of self.
Therefore, the terminology fugue state may carry a slight linguistic distinction from dissociative fugue, the former implying a greater degree of motion.

Emotional detachment

detachmentDetachedpsychological numbing
Dissociation is any of a wide array of experiences from mild detachment from immediate surroundings to more severe detachment from physical and emotional experiences.
Emotional detachment can also be "emotional numbing", "emotional blunting", i.e., dissociation, depersonalization or in its chronic form depersonalization disorder.

Defence mechanism

defense mechanismdefense mechanismsdefence mechanisms
In mild cases, dissociation can be regarded as a coping mechanism or defense mechanisms in seeking to master, minimize or tolerate stress – including boredom or conflict.

Complex post-traumatic stress disorder

complex PTSDcomplex traumacomplex posttraumatic stress disorder
These alterations can include: a sense that self or the world is unreal (depersonalization and derealization); a loss of memory (amnesia); forgetting identity or assuming a new self (fugue); and separate streams of consciousness, identity and self (dissociative identity disorder, formerly termed multiple personality disorder) and complex post-traumatic stress disorder.

Child abuse

abuseabusiveabused
Adult dissociation when combined with a history of child abuse and otherwise interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been shown to contribute to disturbances in parenting behavior, such as exposure of young children to violent media.
Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems, including dissociative symptoms, as well as anxiety, depressive, and acting out symptoms.

Dissociative Experiences Scale

Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES)
Dissociation in community samples is most commonly measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale.
The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) is a psychological self-assessment questionnaire that measures dissociative symptoms.

Pierre Janet

JanetJanetismPierre
French philosopher and psychologist Pierre Janet (1859–1947) is considered to be the author of the concept of dissociation.
Pierre Marie Félix Janet (30 May 1859 – 24 February 1947) was a pioneering French psychologist, philosopher and psychotherapist in the field of dissociation and traumatic memory.

Psychological trauma

traumatraumatizedtraumatic
Dissociation has been described as one of a constellation of symptoms experienced by some victims of multiple forms of childhood trauma, including physical, psychological, and sexual abuse.
Emotional detachment, as well as dissociation or "numbing out" can frequently occur.

Conversion disorder

hysterical blindnesshysterical paralysisconversion
The ICD-10 classifies conversion disorder as a dissociative disorder.
Pierre Janet, the other great theoretician of hysteria, argued that symptoms arose through the power of suggestion, acting on a personality vulnerable to dissociation.

Morton Prince

Prince, Morton
On the other hand, there was a sharp peak in interest in dissociation in America from 1890 to 1910, especially in Boston as reflected in the work of William James, Boris Sidis, Morton Prince, and William McDougall.
He was part of a handful of men who disseminated European ideas about psychopathology, especially in understanding dissociative phenomenon; and helped found the Journal of Abnormal Psychology in 1906, which he edited until his death.

John G. Watkins

Watkins
The authors of this article included leading thinkers of their time – John G. Watkins (who developed Ego-state therapy) and Zygmunt A. Piotrowski (famed for his work on the Rorschach test).
John Goodrich Watkins (17 March 1913 - 12 January 2012) was a United States psychologist best known for his work in the areas of hypnosis, dissociation, and multiple personalities.

Borderline personality disorder

borderlineborderline personalityemotional instability
People may also struggle with a feeling of emptiness, fear of abandonment, and detachment from reality.

Dissociative

dissociative anestheticdissociativesDissociative drug
Although many kinds of drugs are capable of such action, dissociatives are unique in that they do so in such a way that they produce hallucinogenic effects, which may include sensory deprivation, dissociation, hallucinations, and dream-like states or trances.

Ketamine

K-holeSpecial KCalypsol
Substances with dissociative properties include ketamine, nitrous oxide, alcohol, tiletamine, amphetamine, dextromethorphan, MK-801, PCP, methoxetamine, salvia, muscimol, atropine, ibogaine, and minocycline.
At subanesthetic doses—under-dosaged from a medical point of view—ketamine produces a dissociative state, characterised by a sense of detachment from one's physical body and the external world which is known as depersonalization and derealization.

Muscimol

Substances with dissociative properties include ketamine, nitrous oxide, alcohol, tiletamine, amphetamine, dextromethorphan, MK-801, PCP, methoxetamine, salvia, muscimol, atropine, ibogaine, and minocycline.
In large doses strong dissociation or delirium may be felt.

Dextromethorphan

DXMVicks Formula 44Creo-Terpin
Substances with dissociative properties include ketamine, nitrous oxide, alcohol, tiletamine, amphetamine, dextromethorphan, MK-801, PCP, methoxetamine, salvia, muscimol, atropine, ibogaine, and minocycline.
It may produce distortions of the visual field – feelings of dissociation, distorted bodily perception, excitement, and a loss of sense of time.

Posttraumatic stress disorder

post-traumatic stress disorderPTSDpost traumatic stress disorder
Adult dissociation when combined with a history of child abuse and otherwise interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been shown to contribute to disturbances in parenting behavior, such as exposure of young children to violent media.
Some authors believe that the use of benzodiazepines is contraindicated for acute stress, as this group of drugs can cause dissociation.

International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation

International Society for the Study of DissociationJournal of Trauma & Dissociation
In the 1990s, controversies surrounding repressed memory and the possible connections between child abuse, traumatic events, memory and dissociation arose.

Repressed memory

repressed memoriesrecovered memoryrepressed