Dissolution of the Soviet Union

fall of the Soviet Unioncollapse of the Soviet Uniondissolution of the USSRdissolutioncollapse of the USSRbreakup of the Soviet UniondissolvedcollapseSoviet UnionSoviet Union collapsed
The dissolution of the Soviet Union was the process of internal disintegration within the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), also referred to as the Soviet Union, which began in the second half of the 1980s with growing unrest in the national republics and ended on 26 December 1991, when the USSR itself was voted out of existence by the Supreme Soviet, following the Belavezha Accords.wikipedia
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Commonwealth of Independent States

CISCIS countriesCIS (Commonwealth of Independent States)
The declaration acknowledged the independence of the former Soviet republics and created the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), although five of the signatories ratified it much later or did not do so at all. Several of the former Soviet republics have retained close links with the Russian Federation and formed multilateral organizations such as the Commonwealth of Independent States, Eurasian Economic Community, the Union State, the Eurasian Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Union to enhance economic and security cooperation.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is a regional intergovernmental organization of originally ten post-Soviet republics in Eurasia formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Republics of the Soviet Union

Soviet republicsSoviet republicunion republic
Declaration number 142-Н by the Supreme Soviet resulted in self-governing independence to the Republics of the USSR, formally dissolving the USSR.
For most of its history, the USSR was a highly centralized state; the decentralization reforms during the era of Perestroika ("Restructuring") and Glasnost ("Openness") conducted by Mikhail Gorbachev are cited as one of the factors which led to the dissolution of the USSR in 1991.

Belovezha Accords

Belavezha Accordsend of the Soviet UnionCollapse of the Soviet Union
The dissolution of the Soviet Union was the process of internal disintegration within the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), also referred to as the Soviet Union, which began in the second half of the 1980s with growing unrest in the national republics and ended on 26 December 1991, when the USSR itself was voted out of existence by the Supreme Soviet, following the Belavezha Accords.
The Belovezha Accords are accords forming the agreement that declared the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) as effectively ceasing to exist and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in its place as a successor entity.

Post-Soviet states

former Soviet Unionpost-Sovietformer Soviet republics
Several of the former Soviet republics have retained close links with the Russian Federation and formed multilateral organizations such as the Commonwealth of Independent States, Eurasian Economic Community, the Union State, the Eurasian Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Union to enhance economic and security cooperation.
The post-Soviet states, also known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, and in Russia as the "near abroad" are the 15 sovereign states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics following its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.

Cold War

The Cold WarCold War eraCold-War
Both the Revolutions of 1989 and the dissolution of the USSR also marked the end of the Cold War.
The collapse of the USSR in 1991 (when the proto-state Republics of the Soviet Union declared independence) was the end of the Cold War.

Revolutions of 1989

fall of communismthe fall of the Iron Curtaincollapse of communism
Both the Revolutions of 1989 and the dissolution of the USSR also marked the end of the Cold War. It also led indirectly to the revolutions of 1989, in which Soviet-imposed socialist regimes of the Warsaw Pact were toppled peacefully (with the notable exception of Romania), which in turn increased pressure on Gorbachev to introduce greater democracy and autonomy for the Soviet Union's constituent republics.
The Soviet Union dissolved in December 1991, resulting in eleven new countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan), which had declared their independence from the Soviet Union in the course of the year, while the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) regained their independence in September 1991.

Boris Yeltsin

YeltsinPresident YeltsinBoris Nikolayevich Yeltsin
On the previous day, 25 December, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, the eighth and final leader of the USSR, resigned, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers—including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes—to Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
Allying with various non-Russian nationalist leaders, he was instrumental in the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union in December that year, at which the RSFSR became the Russian Federation, an independent state.

Mikhail Gorbachev

GorbachevMikhail S. GorbachevMikhail Gorbachov
On the previous day, 25 December, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, the eighth and final leader of the USSR, resigned, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers—including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes—to Russian President Boris Yeltsin. Mikhail Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by the Politburo on March 11, 1985, three hours after predecessor Konstantin Chernenko's death at age 73.
In the wake of this, the Soviet Union dissolved against Gorbachev's wishes and he resigned.

Nikolai Ryzhkov

Nikolai I. RyzhkovNikolay RyzhkovPremier Ryzhkov
On April 23, 1985, Gorbachev brought two protégés, Yegor Ligachev and Nikolai Ryzhkov, into the Politburo as full members. On September 27, 55-year-old Nikolai Ryzhkov replaced 79-year-old Nikolai Tikhonov as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, effectively the Soviet prime minister, and on October 14, Nikolai Talyzin replaced Nikolai Baibakov as chairman of the State Planning Committee (GOSPLAN).
Nikolai Ivanovich Ryzhkov (Микола Іванович Рижков; Николай Иванович Рыжков; born 28 September 1929) is a former Soviet official who became a Russian politician following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

General SecretarySoviet General SecretaryFirst Secretary
Mikhail Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by the Politburo on March 11, 1985, three hours after predecessor Konstantin Chernenko's death at age 73.
With a few exceptions, from 1929 until the union's dissolution the holder of the office was the de facto leader of the Soviet Union, because the post controlled both the CPSU and the Soviet government.

Flag of Russia

Russian flagflagRussia
That evening at 7:32 p.m., the Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin for the last time and replaced with the pre-revolutionary Russian flag.
With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the pre-revolutionary tricolour was re-introduced as the flag of the Russian Federation in 1991 in the 1:2 ratio.

Nationalism

nationalistnationalisticnationalists
This liberalization, however, fostered nationalist movements and ethnic disputes within the Soviet Union.
Nationalism has been an important driver in independence movements, such as the Greek Revolution, the Irish Revolution, the Zionist movement that created modern Israel, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationNorth Atlantic Treaty OrganisationNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
On the other hand, the Baltic states have joined NATO and the European Union.
This shift started with the 1990 signing in Paris of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe between NATO and the Soviet Union, which mandated specific military reductions across the continent that continued after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991.

Treaty on the Creation of the USSR

December 1922 Union Treatyofficially mergedtreaty
Previously, from August to December, all the individual republics, including Russia itself, had either seceded from the union or at the very least denounced the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR.
On 26 December 1991, the USSR was self-dissolved by the Council of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, the first house of Soviet legislature (the second house, the Council of the Union, was without a quorum).

Economy of the Soviet Union

Soviet economyeconomyeconomic system
His initial goal as general secretary was to revive the Soviet economy, and he realized that doing so would require reforming underlying political and social structures.
At its dissolution at the end of 1991, the Soviet Union begat a Russian Federation with a growing pile of $66 billion in external debt and with barely a few billion dollars in net gold and foreign exchange reserves.

Baltic states

BalticBaltic countriesBaltics
On the other hand, the Baltic states have joined NATO and the European Union.
Soviet rule ended when the three countries declared the occupation illegal and culminated with the restoration of independence to their pre-war status between 1991 when communism collapsed in Eastern Europe.

Gosplan

State Planning CommitteeState Planning CommissionChairman of the State Planning Committee
On September 27, 55-year-old Nikolai Ryzhkov replaced 79-year-old Nikolai Tikhonov as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, effectively the Soviet prime minister, and on October 14, Nikolai Talyzin replaced Nikolai Baibakov as chairman of the State Planning Committee (GOSPLAN).
Established in 1921 and remaining in existence until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Gosplan had as its main task the creation and administration of a series of five-year plans governing the economy of the USSR.

Yegor Ligachyov

Yegor Ligachev
On April 23, 1985, Gorbachev brought two protégés, Yegor Ligachev and Nikolai Ryzhkov, into the Politburo as full members.
However, Ligachyov lost his posts in 1990, a year before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, resigning from his political career at the 28th Party Congress.

Eduard Shevardnadze

ShevardnadzeEdward ShevardnadzeEdvard Shevardnadze
On July 1, 1985, Gorbachev promoted Eduard Shevardnadze, First Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party, to full member of the Politburo, and the following day appointed him minister of foreign affairs, replacing longtime Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko.
In the aftermath of the Soviet Union's collapse in 1991, Shevardnadze returned to the newly independent Georgia.

Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Communist PartyCPSUBolshevik Party
Under Gorbachev's leadership, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in 1989 introduced limited competitive elections to a new central legislature, the Congress of People's Deputies (although the ban on other political parties was not lifted until 1990).
Gorbachev and his allies envisioned the introduction of an economy similar to Lenin's earlier New Economic Policy through a program of "perestroika", or restructuring, but their reforms, along with the institution of free multi-candidate elections led to a decline in the party's power, and after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the banning of the party by later last RSFSR President Boris Yeltsin and subsequent first President of an evolving democratic and free market economy of the successor Russian Federation.

List of leaders of the Soviet Union

leader of the Soviet UnionSoviet leaderleader
On the previous day, 25 December, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, the eighth and final leader of the USSR, resigned, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers—including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes—to Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
Upon death, resignation, or removal from office of an incumbent President, the Vice President of the Soviet Union would assume the office, though the Soviet Union dissolved before this was actually tested.

KGB

Committee for State SecuritySoviet spyK.G.B.
The CPK Central Committee ordered troops from the Ministry of Internal Affairs, druzhiniki (volunteers), cadets, policemen, and the KGB to cordon the square and videotape the participants.
In 1991, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the KGB was split into the Federal Security Service and the Foreign Intelligence Service of the Russian Federation.

Warsaw Pact

Soviet blocWarsaw TreatyEastern Bloc
It also led indirectly to the revolutions of 1989, in which Soviet-imposed socialist regimes of the Warsaw Pact were toppled peacefully (with the notable exception of Romania), which in turn increased pressure on Gorbachev to introduce greater democracy and autonomy for the Soviet Union's constituent republics.
The USSR itself was dissolved in December 1991, although most of the former Soviet republics formed the Collective Security Treaty Organization shortly thereafter.

Flag of the Soviet Union

Soviet flagFlag of Soviet Unionflag
That evening at 7:32 p.m., the Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin for the last time and replaced with the pre-revolutionary Russian flag.
This was the final modification to the flag and it continued to be the official national flag until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Communist Party of Kazakhstan

Communist PartyCommunist Party of the Kazakh SSRKazakhstan
The "Jeltoqsan" (Kazakh for "December") of 1986 were riots in Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan, sparked by Gorbachev's dismissal of Dinmukhamed Konayev, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan and an ethnic Kazakh, who was replaced with Gennady Kolbin, an outsider from the Russian SFSR.
The Communist Party of Kazakhstan had been a branch of Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.