A report on Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden

A postcard from around the time of the Norwegian plebiscite. Ja, vi elsker dette landet ("Yes, we love this country") are the opening words of the Norwegian national anthem.
The Norwegian Storting passes the "revolutionary" resolution
The Norwegian flag, without the union mark, is raised at Akershus Fortress following the dissolution resolution
Peace monument in Karlstad, erected on the city square on the 50th anniversary of the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden
The new king Haakon VII arrives in Norway with Crown Prince Olav on his arm and is greeted on board the ship Heimdal by Prime Minister Christian Michelsen
The swearing in as king of Haakon VII in the Parliament of Norway Building
Statue of King Haakon VII in 7th of June Square, Oslo

Set in motion by a resolution of the Storting on 7 June 1905.

- Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden
A postcard from around the time of the Norwegian plebiscite. Ja, vi elsker dette landet ("Yes, we love this country") are the opening words of the Norwegian national anthem.

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Union between Sweden and Norway

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Sweden–Norway in 1904
Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France, Crown Prince of Sweden in 1810 and Norway in 1814, and King of Sweden and Norway in 1818. Portrait by Joseph Nicolas Jouy, after François-Joseph Kinson
King Charles XIII (Charles II in Norway)
Christian Frederik, hereditary prince of Denmark and Norway, King of Norway May–October 1814, and King of Denmark (as Christian VIII) 1839–48. Portrait by Johan Ludwig Lund 1813
Count Johan Caspar Herman Wedel-Jarlsberg, who warned Christian Frederik
Oscar Wergeland: The Norwegian Constitutional Assembly in 1814
Christian Magnus Falsen, at 32, was credited as being the constitution's father.
Swedish Crown Prince Charles John (Bernadotte), who staunchly opposed Norwegian independence, only to offer generous terms of a union
Map of Norway and Sweden in 1847, by Peter Andreas Munch
King Charles XIV John (Charles III John in Norway). Portrait by Fredric Westin
Poster promoting Scandinavism between Norway, Sweden, and Denmark
King Oscar II
Swedish and Norwegian flags in 1899, after the removal of the union badge from the merchant flag of Norway
The peace monument of Karlstad was erected on the city square in 1955, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the dissolution of the union.
Norwegian soldiers at the border in September 1905. Photo by Narve Skarpmoen
State flag of Sweden (pre-1814–1815)
Flag of Norway (1814–1821)
Flag of Sweden and Norway (1818–1844)
State flag and naval ensign of Sweden and Norway (1815–1844)
Union naval jack and diplomatic flag (1844–1905)
Flag of Sweden (1844–1905)
Flag of Norway (1821–1844)
Flag of Norway (1844–1899)
Flag of Norway (1899–present)
State flag and naval ensign of Sweden (1844–1905)
Naval ensign of Norway (1844–1905) and state flag (1844–1899)
State flag of Norway (1899–present)
Royal standard in Sweden (1844–1905)
Royal standard in Norway (1844–1905)
Royal Swedish coat of arms (1814–1844)
Union and royal coat of arms (1844–1905)

Sweden and Norway or Sweden–Norway (Svensk-norska unionen; Den svensk-norske union(en)), officially the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, and known as the United Kingdoms, was a personal union of the separate kingdoms of Sweden and Norway under a common monarch and common foreign policy that lasted from 1814 until its peaceful dissolution in 1905.

King Haakon VII in 1940

Haakon VII of Norway

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The King of Norway from November 1905 until his death in September 1957.

The King of Norway from November 1905 until his death in September 1957.

King Haakon VII in 1940
Prince Carl's birthplace, Charlottenlund Palace north of Copenhagen, c. undefined 1895.
Prince Carl of Denmark as a naval cadet in 1889.
Wedding of Princess Maud and Prince Carl at Buckingham Palace
Ballots with yes and no from the 1905 Norwegian monarchy referendum.
A delegation from the Norwegian Parliament is received on 20 November 1905 at Amalienborg by King Christian IX of Denmark, who gives his consent to the election of his grandson Prince Carl as King of Norway. Painting by Paul Fischer.
King Haakon VII arrives in Norway with Crown Prince Olav on his arm and is greeted on board the ship Heimdal by Prime Minister Christian Michelsen.
Coronation portrait of King Haakon VII and Queen Maud, 22 June 1906
King Haakon VII, Crown Prince Olav and Queen Maud, on 17 July 1913 in Norway
King Haakon with other European sovereigns at the funeral of King Edward VII, photographed on 20 May 1910. Standing, from left to right: King Haakon VII of Norway, Tsar Ferdinand of the Bulgarians, King Manuel II of Portugal and the Algarves, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, King George I of the Hellenes and King Albert I of the Belgians. Seated, from left to right: King Alfonso XIII of Spain, King George V of the United Kingdom and King Frederick VIII of Denmark.
King Haakon VII and Crown Prince Olav seeking shelter on the outskirts of Molde during a German bombing raid on the city in April 1940.
The King's monogram became a symbol of resistance during the Second World War
The Royal Family of Norway waving to the welcoming crowds from at Oslo, June 1945.
King Haakon VII reading the Speech from the Throne to the Storting in 1950, Crown Prince Olav on his left side
Funeral procession of King Haakon VII with King Olav V and Crown prince Harald at the front

After the 1905 dissolution of the union between Sweden and Norway, Prince Carl was offered the Norwegian crown.

Sweden

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Country in Northern Europe.

Country in Northern Europe.

A Vendel-era helmet, at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities
Viking expeditions (blue lines)
The Tjängvide image stone dating from 800 to 1099, example of Viking art
Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), a site of religious and political importance in the early days of Sweden
Skog tapestry, made most probably during the late 13th century.
Gustav I liberated Sweden from Christian II of Denmark, ending the Kalmar Union. He established the House of Vasa which ruled Sweden and Poland until the 17th century
Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld in 1631.
The Swedish Empire between 1611 and 1815, with its absolute peak between 1658 and 1660.
The Battle of Poltava in 1709. In the following years, Russia and her allies occupied all Swedish dominions on the Baltic coast and even Finland.
Illustration of starvation in northern Sweden, Famine of 1867–1869
Swedish emigrants boarding ship in Gothenburg in 1905
A Swedish soldier during World War II. Sweden remained neutral during the conflict.
Tage Erlander (left), Prime Minister under the ruling Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1946 to 1969.
Sweden joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
Second day of the Stockholm Husby riots. The picture shows three cars on fire in the Stockholm suburb of Husby, 20 May 2013
View of the Stora Sjöfallet National Park
Scania in southern Sweden
Sandhamn island, Stockholm archipelago
Köppen climate classification types of Sweden using the 0°C isotherm
Köppen climate classification types of Sweden using the -3°C isotherm
Map of Sweden's five major vegetation zones
The current King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf, and his consort, Queen Silvia
Rosenbad, in central Stockholm, has been the seat of the Government since 1981.
The Riksdag chamber, at the time of a vote, in 2009
The party leaders lined up before the start of the televised live debate on 12 September 2014.
Municipal divisions of Sweden
Kingdoms of Svear (Sweonas) and Götar (Geats) in the 12th century, with modern borders in grey
The Riksdag, the Swedish Parliament in 2014
Bonde Palace in Stockholm, seat of the Supreme Court of Sweden
The EU parliament in Brussels. Sweden is a member state of the European Union.
Development aid measured in GNI in 2009. Source: OECD. As a percentage Sweden is the largest donor.
The Saab JAS 39 Gripen is an advanced Swedish multi-role fighter aircraft of the Swedish Air Force.
The Infantry fighting vehicle CV90, which is produced and used by Sweden
Gross regional product (GRP) per capita in thousands of kronor (2014)
A proportional representation of Sweden exports, 2019
Sweden is home to Volvo Cars, an automobile company with its headquarters in Gothenburg
Real GDP growth in Sweden, 1996–2006
Sweden is part of the Schengen Area and the EU single market.
Nordstan is one of the largest shopping malls in northern Europe
Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant, located south of Gothenburg
The Öresund Bridge between Malmö and Copenhagen in Denmark
Stockholm Central Station
Alfred Nobel, inventor of dynamite and institutor of the Nobel Prize
Population density in the counties of Sweden.
people/km²
Distribution of speakers of the Swedish language
The Protestant Katarina Church in Stockholm
The second oldest mosque in Sweden is the Malmö Mosque, inaugurated in 1984
Historical development of life expectancy in Sweden
Uppsala University (established 1477)
Nationalmuseum in Stockholm
The Swedish band ABBA in April 1974, a few days after they won the Eurovision Song Contest
Djurgårdsbron
Kalmar Cathedral
Headquarters of Sveriges Television in Stockholm
The writer and playwright August Strindberg
Walpurgis Night bonfire in Sweden
Cinnamon rolls originated in Sweden and Denmark.
Former World No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg
Former world No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg

The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814 when Norway was militarily forced into a personal union, which peacefully dissolved in 1905.

Oscar II in 1900

Oscar II

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King of Sweden from 1872 until his death in 1907 and King of Norway from 1872 to 1905.

King of Sweden from 1872 until his death in 1907 and King of Norway from 1872 to 1905.

Oscar II in 1900
Photograph of Oscar II, c. 1900-07
Aides Daniel Nordlander (upper left) and Fritz von Dardel, Ordnance Officer Ferdinand-Alphonse Hamelin, General Henri-Pierre Castelnau, King Charles XV of Sweden and Prince Oscar, future King Oscar II of Sweden, at the 1867 International Exposition in Paris, France.
Portrait of Oscar II by Anders Zorn 1898
Oscar II boating.
Engraving by Anders Zorn.
Portrait of Oscar II wearing the Crown of Eric XIV and mantle, by Oscar Björck. King Oscar II was the last crowned Swedish king and was known to enjoy the pomp and ceremony.
Photograph of Oscar II, c. 1870s
Photograph of Oscar II by Gösta Florman, c. 1891

His reign also saw the gradual decline of the Union of Sweden and Norway, which culminated in its dissolution in 1905.

Christian Michelsen by the early 20th century

Christian Michelsen

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Norwegian shipping magnate and statesman.

Norwegian shipping magnate and statesman.

Christian Michelsen by the early 20th century
Memorial to Christian Michelsen. Bergen, Norway
Michelsen greets King Haakon and prince Olav as they arrive in Norway for the first time in 1905
Gamlehaugen, Michelsen's estate outside of Bergen
The Chr. Michelsen Institute in Bergen

Michelsen is most known for his central role in the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905, and was one of Norway's most influential politicians of his time.

Nansen in 1890

Fridtjof Nansen

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Norwegian polymath and Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

Norwegian polymath and Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

Nansen in 1890
Nansen in 1865 (age 4)
Nansen as a student in Christiania (1880, age 19)
Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld, whose 1883 expedition had penetrated 160 km into the Greenland icecap
Greenland expedition, July–October 1888
Boats and supplies were stored on Greenland's east coast
Fridtjof Nansen and Eva Nansen in autumn 1889
Nansen in 1889
Expedition routes, July 1893 – August 1896:
Preparations for Nansen and Johansen's polar trek, 14 March 1895
Nansen and Johansen's winter hut of 1895 on Franz Josef Land
Staged photo of the Nansen–Jackson meeting near Cape Flora, 17 June 1896
Fridtjof Nansen Institute at Polhøgda
King Oscar II, last king of the union of Sweden and Norway. He remained Sweden's king after Norway's independence in 1905.
The Nansen bottle was used to sample seawater temperature at specific depths
Nansen advocated for Norway to become a full member of the League of Nations, himself becoming a delegate
Nansen's photos on postcards were meant to raise awareness about the famine
The Nansen passport allowed stateless persons to legally cross borders
Nansen in front of an Armenian orphanage, 25 June 1925
Nansen, photographed toward the end of his life (1930)
Mount Fridtjof Nansen in Antarctica, named and photographed by Roald Amundsen

As one of his country's leading citizens, in 1905 Nansen spoke out for the ending of Norway's union with Sweden, and was instrumental in persuading Prince Carl of Denmark to accept the throne of the newly independent Norway.

Kingdom of Norway (1814)

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In 1814, the Kingdom of Norway made a brief and ultimately unsuccessful attempt to regain its independence.

In 1814, the Kingdom of Norway made a brief and ultimately unsuccessful attempt to regain its independence.

The Kingdom of Norway in 1814
Christian Frederick in 1813
The Kingdom of Norway in 1814
The Norwegian war flag, introduced by Christian Frederick on 27 February 1814
Artist's rendition of the Norwegian constitutional assembly in 1814
Christian Magnus Falsen, credited as being the constitution's father
Charles John staunchly opposed Norwegian independence, only to offer generous terms of a union.

Norway would eventually fully break away from Sweden in 1905.

Charles John, born Jean Bernadotte, King of Sweden and Norway 1818–1844
Portrait by Fredric Westin.

House of Bernadotte

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Royal house of Sweden since its foundation in 1818.

Royal house of Sweden since its foundation in 1818.

Charles John, born Jean Bernadotte, King of Sweden and Norway 1818–1844
Portrait by Fredric Westin.
Bernadotte's arms as sovereign of Pontecorvo
Greater Coat of Arms of Sweden

The House of Bernadotte reigned in both countries until the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905.

Storting

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The Storting (Stortinget ) (lit.

The Storting (Stortinget ) (lit.

Lagting Hall, which also serves as the meeting room for the Christian Democratic Party's parliamentary group. The Lagting was discontinued in 2009.
Interpellation (spørretimen) being held inside the hemicycle of the building
An election booth at the event of municipal and county voting, 2007.
Stortinget Building.

Articles 77–79 of the Norwegian constitution specifically grant the King of Norway the right to withhold Royal Assent from any bill passed by the Storting, however, this right has never been exercised by any Norwegian monarch since the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905 (though it was exercised by Swedish monarchs before then when they ruled Norway).

1905 Norwegian monarchy referendum

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Held in Norway on 12 and 13 November 1905.

Held in Norway on 12 and 13 November 1905.

On 7 June 1905, the Storting approved the dissolution of the union with Sweden; as a result, Swedish King Oscar II abdicated as King of Norway.