Distributed transaction

Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".

Database transaction in which two or more network hosts are involved.

- Distributed transaction

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Database transaction

A database transaction symbolizes a unit of work performed within a database management system (or similar system) against a database, and treated in a coherent and reliable way independent of other transactions.

An SQL select statement and its result

Database systems implement distributed transactions as transactions accessing data over multiple nodes.

ACID

Set of properties of database transactions intended to guarantee data validity despite errors, power failures, and other mishaps.

Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".

Guaranteeing ACID properties in a distributed transaction across a distributed database, where no single node is responsible for all data affecting a transaction, presents additional complications.

Two-phase commit protocol

Type of atomic commitment protocol (ACP).

Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".

It is a distributed algorithm that coordinates all the processes that participate in a distributed atomic transaction on whether to commit or abort (roll back) the transaction.

X/Open XA

Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".

For transaction processing in computing, the X/Open XA standard (short for "eXtended Architecture") is a specification released in 1991 by X/Open (which later merged with The Open Group) for distributed transaction processing (DTP).

Database

Organized collection of data stored and accessed electronically.

An SQL select statement and its result
Basic structure of navigational CODASYL database model
In the relational model, records are "linked" using virtual keys not stored in the database but defined as needed between the data contained in the records.
Collage of five types of database models
Traditional view of data

Sometimes the term multi-database is used as a synonym for federated database, though it may refer to a less integrated (e.g., without an FDBMS and a managed integrated schema) group of databases that cooperate in a single application. In this case, typically middleware is used for distribution, which typically includes an atomic commit protocol (ACP), e.g., the two-phase commit protocol, to allow distributed (global) transactions across the participating databases.

Serializability

Serializable if its outcome (e.g., the resulting database state) is equal to the outcome of its transactions executed serially, i.e. without overlapping in time.

A program in paper tape

The straightforward solution for synchronizing replicas' updates of the same database object is including all these updates in a single atomic distributed transaction.

Concurrency control

In information technology and computer science, especially in the fields of computer programming, operating systems, multiprocessors, and databases, concurrency control ensures that correct results for concurrent operations are generated, while getting those results as quickly as possible.

A program in paper tape

In addition, increasingly a need exists to operate effectively while transactions are distributed over processes, computers, and computer networks.

Compensating transaction

The execution of a business process consists of one or more transactions.

A simple flowchart representing a process for dealing with a non-functioning lamp.

This type of transaction differs from distributed transactions (often implemented using the two-phase-commit protocol), because although both types of transactions can result in multiple data stores being updated, compensating transactions allows for the updates to span a long period of time.

Global serializability

Property of a global schedule of transactions.

A program in paper tape

Find an efficient (high-performance and fault tolerant) method to enforce Global serializability (global conflict serializability) in a heterogeneous distributed environment of multiple autonomous database systems. The database systems may employ different concurrency control methods. No limitation should be imposed on the operations of either local transactions (confined to a single database system) or global transactions (span two or more database systems).

Commitment ordering

Class of interoperable serializability techniques in concurrency control of databases, transaction processing, and related applications.

A program in paper tape

All distributed transactional systems rely on some atomic commitment protocol to coordinate atomicity (whether to commit or abort) among processes in a distributed transaction.