Division of property

"Just Divorced!" hand-written on an automobile's rear window.

Judicial division of property rights and obligations between spouses during divorce.

- Division of property

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Process of terminating a marriage or marital union.

"Just Divorced!" hand-written on an automobile's rear window.
Roman married couple.
Henry VIII of England broke with the Catholic Church in order to obtain an annulment.
Joséphine, first wife of Napoleon, obtained the civil dissolution of her marriage under the Napoleonic Code of 1804.
Marilyn Monroe signing divorce papers with celebrity attorney Jerry Giesler.

Divorce laws vary considerably around the world, but in most countries, divorce requires the sanction of a court or other authority in a legal process, which may involve issues of distribution of property, child custody, alimony (spousal support), child visitation / access, parenting time, child support, and division of debt.

Community property

Marital property regime that originated in civil law jurisdictions but is now also found in some common law jurisdictions..

Map of the United States with community property states in red. Additionally, Alaska, Kentucky, and Tennessee are elective community property states, and of the five inhabited US territories, Puerto Rico and Guam are community property jurisdictions.

In other jurisdictions, such as Texas, a divorce court may decree an "equitable distribution" of community property, which may result in an unequal division of such.

Miller v Miller

Queen Anne addressing the House of Lords, c. 1708–14, by Peter Tillemans

Miller v Miller 2006 (House of Lords) is a divorce (property settlement) case between Alan Miller and Melissa Miller.

New York divorce law

New York divorce law changed on August 15, 2010, when Governor David Paterson signed no-fault divorce into law in New York state.

The parties may also disagree over child support, custody, alimony, division of joint assets or who is going to pay legal fees.


Extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.

Public punishment of adulterers in Venice, 17th century
Susannah accused of adultery, by Antoine Coypel
Anne Boleyn was found guilty of adultery and treason and executed in 1536. There is controversy among historians as to whether she had actually committed adultery.
Le supplice des adultères, by Jules Arsène Garnier, showing two adulterers being punished
Man and woman undergoing public exposure for adultery in Japan, around 1860
'Thou shalt not commit adultery' (Nathan confronts David); bronze bas-relief on the door of the La Madeleine, Paris, Paris.
An Aztec adulterer being stoned to death; Florentine Codex
According to legend, after being accused of adultery, Cunigunde of Luxembourg proved her innocence by walking over red-hot ploughshares.
Joan II of Navarre – her paternity and succession rights were disputed her whole life because her mother Margaret of Burgundy was claimed to have committed adultery.
Inca woman and man to be stoned for adultery, by Huamán Poma
Jesus and the woman taken in adultery by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld, 1860, where Jesus said that the man who was without sin should throw the first stone.

However, even in jurisdictions that have decriminalised adultery, it may still have legal consequences, particularly in jurisdictions with fault-based divorce laws, where adultery almost always constitutes a ground for divorce and may be a factor in property settlement, the custody of children, the denial of alimony, etc. Adultery is not a ground for divorce in jurisdictions which have adopted a no-fault divorce model.

Family Court of Australia

The Family Court of Australia was a superior Australian federal court of record which deals with family law matters, such as divorce applications, parenting disputes, and the division of property when a couple separate.


Area of land that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crops; it is the basic facility in food production.

Farmland in the United States. The round fields are due to the use of center pivot irrigation
Typical plan of a medieval English manor, showing the use of field strips
A farmer harvesting crops with mule-drawn wagon, 1920s, Iowa, USA
Map of the world showing approximate centers of origin of agriculture and its spread in prehistory: the Fertile Crescent (11,000 BP), the Yangtze and Yellow River basins (9,000 BP), and the New Guinea Highlands (9,000–6,000 BP), Central Mexico (5,000–4,000 BP), Northern South America (5,000–4,000 BP), sub-Saharan Africa (5,000–4,000 BP, exact location unknown), eastern North America (4,000–3,000 BP).
An aerial photo of the Borgboda farm in Saltvik, Åland
A milking machine in action
Poultry farming
Farming near Klingerstown, Pennsylvania
A typical North American grain farm with farmstead in Ontario, Canada
Traditional Dutch farmhouse
Farmlands in Hebei province, China
Goat found in Nepal
Cows grazing on a farm in Victoria, Australia
Goat found in Australia
A typical farm in Namibia

The distribution of farm ownership has historically been closely linked to form of government.

Australian family law

Principally found in the federal Family Law Act 1975 and the Federal Circuit and Family Court of Australia Rules 2021 as well as in other laws and the common law and laws of equity, which affect the family and the relationship between those people, including when those relationships end.

However, a residual "fault" element remains in relation to child custody and property settlement issues.

No-fault divorce

In a no-fault divorce the dissolution of a marriage does not require a showing of wrongdoing by either party.

The Federal Court Building on the corner of La Trobe Street and William Street, the location of the Melbourne division of the Family Court of Australia

However, a residual "fault" element remains in relation to child custody and property settlement issues.

Domestic relations

Broad category that encompasses:

Legal systems of the world. Common law countries are in several shades of pink, corresponding to variations in common law systems.

property settlements;