A report on Divorce

"Just Divorced!" hand-written on an automobile's rear window.
Roman married couple.
Henry VIII of England broke with the Catholic Church in order to obtain an annulment.
Joséphine, first wife of Napoleon, obtained the civil dissolution of her marriage under the Napoleonic Code of 1804.
Marilyn Monroe signing divorce papers with celebrity attorney Jerry Giesler.

Process of terminating a marriage or marital union.

- Divorce
"Just Divorced!" hand-written on an automobile's rear window.

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Divorce in Scotland

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Actions for divorce in Scotland may be brought in either the Sheriff Court or the Court of Session.

Actions for divorce in Scotland may be brought in either the Sheriff Court or the Court of Session.

Divorce is now regulated by the Divorce (Scotland) Act 1976 as amended by the Family Law (Scotland) Act 2006, which provides two legal grounds for divorce: the "irretrievable breakdown of the marriage" or where one party has undergone gender reassignment surgery and obtained an interim gender recognition certificate.

Statue of a mother at the Yasukuni Shrine, dedicated to war widows who raised their children alone

Single parent

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Person who has a child or children but does not have a spouse or live-in partner to assist in the upbringing or support of the child.

Person who has a child or children but does not have a spouse or live-in partner to assist in the upbringing or support of the child.

Statue of a mother at the Yasukuni Shrine, dedicated to war widows who raised their children alone
A single mother and child
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Divorce was generally rare historically (although this depends by culture and era), and divorce especially became very difficult to obtain after the fall of the Roman Empire, in Medieval Europe, due to strong involvement of ecclesiastical courts in family life (though annulment and other forms of separation were more common).

Zelder paradox

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In economics, the Zelder paradox is the observation of Martin Zelder that welfare-reducing divorce is more likely when a couple has invested their efforts into love and children instead of money, possessions, and sex.

Venus and Mars Surprised by Vulcan, by Alessandro Varotari. In ancient Roman religion, Vulcan discovers his wife, Venus, having an affair with Mars.

Infidelity

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Violation of a couple's emotional and/or sexual exclusivity that commonly results in feelings of anger, sexual jealousy, and rivalry.

Violation of a couple's emotional and/or sexual exclusivity that commonly results in feelings of anger, sexual jealousy, and rivalry.

Venus and Mars Surprised by Vulcan, by Alessandro Varotari. In ancient Roman religion, Vulcan discovers his wife, Venus, having an affair with Mars.

Even where infidelity is not a criminal offense, it may have legal implications in divorce cases; for example it may be a factor in property settlement, the custody of children, the denial of alimony, etc. In civil claims, not only the spouse, but also the "other man/other woman" may be held accountable: for example, seven US states (Hawaii, Illinois, North Carolina, Mississippi, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Utah) allow the possibility of the tort action of alienation of affections (brought by a deserted spouse against a third party alleged to be responsible for the failure of the marriage).

Shared residency in England

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Shared residence, joint residence, or shared parenting refers to the situation where a child of parents who have divorced or separated live with each parent at different times, such as every other week.

A French temperance organisation poster depicting the effects of alcoholism in a family, c. 1915

Alcoholism

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Alcoholism is, broadly, any drinking of alcohol that results in significant mental or physical health problems.

Alcoholism is, broadly, any drinking of alcohol that results in significant mental or physical health problems.

A French temperance organisation poster depicting the effects of alcoholism in a family, c. 1915
Some of the possible long-term effects of ethanol an individual may develop. Additionally, in pregnant women, alcohol can cause fetal alcohol syndrome.
"The bottle has done its work". Reproduction of an etching by G. Cruikshank, 1847.
Mental health as a risk factor for alcohol dependency or abuse.
William Hogarth's Gin Lane, 1751
A man drinking from a bottle of liquor while sitting on a boardwalk, ca. 1905–1914. Picture by Austrian photographer Emil Mayer.
A regional service center for Alcoholics Anonymous.
Alcohol consumption per person 2016.
Adriaen Brouwer, Inn with Drunken Peasants, 1620s
1904 advertisement describing alcoholism as a disease.

This isolation can lead to marital conflict and divorce, or contribute to domestic violence.

Matrimonial Causes Act 1857

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Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

The Act reformed the law on divorce, moving litigation from the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts to the civil courts, establishing a model of marriage based on contract rather than sacrament and widening the availability of divorce beyond those who could afford to bring proceedings for annulment or to promote a private Bill.

Public policy doctrine

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In private international law, the public policy doctrine or ordre public (French: "public order") concerns the body of principles that underpin the operation of legal systems in each state.

In private international law, the public policy doctrine or ordre public (French: "public order") concerns the body of principles that underpin the operation of legal systems in each state.

Similarly, it would be possible to question the propriety of polygamous marriages, the talaq system of divorce which is available in some Islamic states, and Jewish divorce known as the get, but it is likely that the courts would be cautious to avoid any implication that they were discriminating against religions.

Republic of Ireland

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Country in north-western Europe consisting of 26 of the 32 counties of the island of Ireland.

Country in north-western Europe consisting of 26 of the 32 counties of the island of Ireland.

The Irish Parliamentary Party was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell (1846–1891).
The Easter Proclamation, 1916
In 1922 a new parliament called the Oireachtas was established, of which Dáil Éireann became the lower house.
Éamon de Valera (1882–1975)
In 1973 Ireland joined the European Economic Community along with the United Kingdom and Denmark. The country signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
The Cliffs of Moher on the Atlantic coast
MacGillycuddy's Reeks, mountain range in County Kerry includes the highest peaks in Ireland.
Glendalough valley in County Wicklow
President Michael D. Higgins
Government Buildings
The Four Courts, completed in 1802, is the principal building for civil courts.
The Criminal Courts of Justice is the principal building for criminal courts.
Soldiers of the Irish Army on Easter Rising centenary parade
Ireland is part of the EU (dark blue & light blue) and Eurozone (dark blue).
A proportional representation of Ireland exports, 2019
The International Financial Services Centre in Dublin
A wind farm in County Wexford
InterCity Mark IV train at Heuston station
Population of Ireland since 1951
Percentage of population speaking Irish daily (outside the education system) in the 2011 census
RCSI Disease and Research Centre at Beaumont Hospital in Dublin
University College Cork was founded in 1845 and is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland.
The longroom at the Trinity College Library
St Mary's Pro-Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Church in Dublin.
St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, is the national Cathedral of the Church of Ireland.
Jonathan Swift (1667–1745)
W. B. Yeats (1865–1939)
Dublin-based rock group U2
The ruins of Monasterboice in County Louth are of early Christian settlements.
The Dublin Custom House is a neoclassical building from the late 18th century.
Brick architecture of multi-storey buildings in Dame Street in Dublin
Capital Dock in Dublin is the tallest building in the Republic of Ireland.
A pint of Guinness
Croke Park stadium is the headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association.
The seal of the President of Ireland, incorporating a harp
Glendalough valley in County Wicklow
Glenveagh, the second-largest national park in Ireland.
Mount Brandon
Irish Army soldiers as part of Kosovo Force, 2010.
Irish Guard of Honour 'Garda Onóra' during the state visit at Áras an Uachtaráin, Dublin

A constitutional ban on divorce was lifted following a referendum in 1995.

Polygyny among 19th century Mormons: Portrait of Ira Eldredge with his three wives: Nancy Black Eldredge, Hannah Mariah Savage Eldredge, and Helvig Marie Andersen Eldredge.

Polygyny

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LegalPolygyny is legal in certain regionsPolygyny is legal for Muslims onlyPolygyny is illegal, but the practice is not criminalizedPolygyny is illegal and the practice is criminalizedLegal status unknown • In Eritrea, India, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, and Sri Lanka polygyny is only legal for Muslims.

LegalPolygyny is legal in certain regionsPolygyny is legal for Muslims onlyPolygyny is illegal, but the practice is not criminalizedPolygyny is illegal and the practice is criminalizedLegal status unknown • In Eritrea, India, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, and Sri Lanka polygyny is only legal for Muslims.

Polygyny among 19th century Mormons: Portrait of Ira Eldredge with his three wives: Nancy Black Eldredge, Hannah Mariah Savage Eldredge, and Helvig Marie Andersen Eldredge.

However, in the case of a divorce or their husbands' death they can remarry after the completion of Iddah, as divorce is legal in Islamic law.