Doctor of Medicine

M.D.MDmedical degreedoctorM.DDMmedical doctoratemedical doctorsDoctorate of Medicinedoctorate in medicine
Doctor of Medicine (abbreviated M.D., from the Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions.wikipedia
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Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

College of Physicians and SurgeonsColumbia College of Physicians and SurgeonsColumbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons
The Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York (which at the time was referred to as King's College of Medicine) was the first American university to grant the M.D. degree instead of the MB.
Founded in 1767 by Samuel Bard as the medical department of King's College (now Columbia University), the College of Physicians and Surgeons was the first medical school in the thirteen colonies and hence, the United States, to award the Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree.

Columbia University

ColumbiaColumbia CollegeUniversity of Columbia
Early medical schools in North America that granted the Doctor of Medicine degrees were Columbia, Penn, Harvard, Maryland, and McGill.
Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M.D. degree.

Residency (medicine)

residencyresidentresidents
Typically a doctor must go through a residency for at least four years and take some form of licensing examination in their jurisdiction.
It refers to a qualified physician, podiatrist, dentist, optometrist, veterinarian, or pharmacist (one who holds the degree of MD, DPM, DDS, DMD, DVM, DO, OD, PharmD, BDS, or BDent; or MB; BS, MBChB, or BMed) who practices medicine, usually in a hospital or clinic, under the direct or indirect supervision of a senior clinician registered in that specialty such as an attending physician or consultant.

Medical school

medical studentFaculty of Medicinemedical students
In the United States, Canada and some other countries, the M.D. denotes a professional graduate degree awarded upon graduation from medical school.
Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS, MBChB, BMBS), Doctor of Medicine (MD), or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO).

Medical degree

M.D.MDmedical diploma
Doctor of Medicine (abbreviated M.D., from the Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions.

Academic degree

degreedegreesuniversity degree
In 1703, the University of Glasgow's first medical graduate, Samuel Benion, was issued with the academic degree of Doctor of Medicine.
Common abbreviations include BA and MA for Bachelor and Master of Arts, BS/BSc and MS/MSc for Bachelor and Master of Science, MD for Doctor of Medicine and PhD for Doctor of Philosophy.

McGill University Faculty of Medicine

Faculty of MedicineMcGill University Medical SchoolDepartment of Social Studies of Medicine
Early medical schools in North America that granted the Doctor of Medicine degrees were Columbia, Penn, Harvard, Maryland, and McGill.
McGill University Faculty of Medicine offers a four-year medical M.D., C.M. degree (MDCM).

Peking Union Medical College

Chinese Academy of Medical SciencesInstitute of Basic Medical SciencesAcademy of Medical Sciences
In China, many prestigious research universities such as Peking Union Medical College, Peking University Health Science Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University and many more current days, offer the 8-year Doctor of Medicine program.
It is the first medical school in China to introduce the 8-year M.D. program.

Medical education in the Philippines

accredited institutionhealth programList of APMC (Accredited Philippine Medical Schools).
It is attained by either completing a 4-year degree or a 5-year degree (with internship included) from an [[Medical education in the Philippines#List of APMC (Accredited Philippine Medical Schools)|accredited institution]] private and public Medical School by the Association of Philippine Medical Colleges and the Commission on Higher Education.
The Philippine medical schools are graduate schools offering the Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree.

Physician

doctormedical doctorphysicians
Graduates receive their license to practice medicine and the professional title of physician (Arzt).
The vast majority of physicians trained in the United States have a Doctor of Medicine degree, and use the initials M.D. A smaller number attend Osteopathic schools and have a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degree and use the initials D.O. After completion of medical school, physicians complete a residency in the specialty in which they will practice.

Professional degree

first professional degreeprofessionaldegree
In the United States, Canada and some other countries, the M.D. denotes a professional graduate degree awarded upon graduation from medical school.
The Scottish practice of awarding the Doctor of Medicine (MD) as a first degree was abolished by the university commissioners appointed under the Universities (Scotland) Act 1858, it being replaced by the Bachelor of Medicine and Master of Surgery (MS), with the MD becoming a higher degree as in England.

Jessenius Faculty of Medicine

Jessenius School of Medicine
Two of them are faculties of the Comenius University, which are the Faculty of Medicine in Bratislava and the Jessenius School of Medicine in Martin, while the third one is the Faculty of Medicine at the Pavol Josef Šafarik University in Košice.
Along with its Slovak-taught programs, the school also offers a 6-year English-language program in medicine leading to the title Doctor of Medicine (M.D., international title), PhD programs in medicine and odontology and several master’s degree programs in nursing and public health.

Alexander American University

Texila American University, Green Heart University, American International School of Medicine, Alexander American University, Lincoln American University provides medicine programs.
Graduates obtain a Medical Doctorate upon completion of the five year medical program.

American Medical Association

AMAAmerican Medical Association (AMA) American Medical Association
In the United States, the M.D. awarded by medical schools is a "Professional Doctorate" (as opposed to the Doctor of Philosophy degree which requires a focus on research) and is accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME), an independent body sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges, and the American Medical Association (AMA).
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.

United States Medical Licensing Examination

USMLEmedical boardsboard
Before graduating from a medical school and being awarded the Doctor of Medicine degree, students are required to take the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and both the clinical knowledge and clinical skills parts of Step 2.
Physicians with an MD degree are required to pass this examination before being permitted to practice medicine in the United States; see below for requirements of physicians with a DO degree.

Medical Scientist Training Program

MSTPD.O./Ph.D.MD-PhD program
The National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its Medical Scientist Training Program, funds M.D.-Ph.D. training programs at many universities.
The Medical Scientist Training Programs (MSTPs) are MD-PhD training programs that streamline the education towards MD and PhD graduate degrees.

Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine

D.O.DOosteopathic physician
In addition to the M.D., the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) is an equivalent professional doctoral degree for physicians and surgeons offered by medical schools in the United States.
A DO graduate may become licensed as an osteopathic physician, having equivalent rights, privileges, and responsibilities as a physician who has earned the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree.

MD–PhD

MD-PhDM.D.-Ph.D.MD/PhD
Combined medical and research training is offered through programs granting an MD-PhD.
The Doctorate of Medicine and of Philosophy (MD–PhD) is a dual doctoral degree for physician–scientists, combining the vocational training of the Doctor of Medicine degree with the research expertise of the Doctor of Philosophy degree; the Ph.D is the most advanced credential in the United States.

Texila American University

Texila American University (TAU)
Texila American University, Green Heart University, American International School of Medicine, Alexander American University, Lincoln American University provides medicine programs.
Completion of the full program will result in students receiving an MBBS for the pre-medical courses and the Doctor of Medicine degree for completion of the entire course.

Universiti Putra Malaysia

University Putra MalaysiaUniversiti Pertanian MalaysiaUPM
Examples of universities in Malaysia offering the M.D degree are University Sains Malaysia, National University of Malaysia, University Putra Malaysia, UCSI University, etc.
The Doctor of Medicine program provided by the Medical and Health Science division of the university was fully recognised by the Malaysia Medical Council on 5 June 2001.

Doctorate

doctoraldoctoral degreedoctorate degree
Thus, in the United Kingdom, Ireland and other countries, the M.D. is a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to those who already hold a professional degree in medicine; in those countries, the equivalent professional to the North American and some others use of M.D. is still typically titled Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.B.S.).
The first professional doctorate to be offered in the United States was the M.D. at Kings College (now Columbia University) after the medical school's founding in 1767, although this was not a professional doctorate in the modern American sense as it was awarded for further study after the qualifying Bachelor of Medicine (M.B.) rather than being a qualifying degree.

Croatia

Republic of CroatiaCroatianCRO
In Croatia, the title of "doktor medicine" (abbreviated "dr. med.") is awarded upon completion of six years of study at a Faculty of Medicine ("medicinski fakultet") immediately after high school.
The hospitals and clinics care for more than 700 thousand patients per year and employ 5,205 medical doctors, including 3,929 specialists.

USMLE Step 3

USMLE
Following the awarding of the MD, physicians who wish to practice in the United States are required to complete at least one internship year (PGY-1) and pass the USMLE Step 3.
It is part of the licensing requirements for Doctors of Medicine (M.D.) and international medical graduates to practice medicine in the United States.

Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery

MBBSMB ChBBachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Thus, in the United Kingdom, Ireland and other countries, the M.D. is a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to those who already hold a professional degree in medicine; in those countries, the equivalent professional to the North American and some others use of M.D. is still typically titled Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.B.S.). In England, however, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery was used and eventually in the 19th century became the standard in Scotland too.
In countries that follow the system in the United States, the equivalent medical degree is awarded as Doctor of Medicine (MD) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO) (the latter in the United States only).

Bologna Process

second cycleBologna systemBologna
However, spurred by the Bologna process, a major reform instituted in 1999 to align University programmes with the more universal system of undergraduate (Bachelor's degree) and postgraduate studies (Master's and Doctoral degrees) and as such the degree of 'Dottore in Medicina e Chirurgia' is no longer offered and was replaced with the 'Laurea Magistrale in Medicina e Chirurgia' (Master of Medicine and Surgery).
Medical and related studies replace the bachelor's degree with six-year first professional degrees and graduate Doctor of Medicine (doktor medicine) degrees.