Doctor of Philosophy

Ph.D.PhDPh.DDPhildoctoratedr.philos.D.Phil.Doctorate of PhilosophyD.Phildoctoral
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin philosophiae doctor or doctor philosophiae) is the highest university degree that is conferred after a course of study by universities in most countries.wikipedia
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Doctor (title)

Dr.DoctorDr
Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree may, in many jurisdictions, use the title Doctor (often abbreviated "Dr" or "Dr.") or, in non-English-speaking countries, variants such as "Dr. phil."
Contracted "Dr" or "Dr.", it is used as a designation for a person who has obtained a Doctorate (e.g. PhD).

Doctor of Education

Ed.D.EdDEd.D
Universities sometimes award other types of doctorate besides the PhD, such as the Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.) for music performers and the Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) for professional educators.
The first Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree in the field of education was granted at Teachers College, Columbia University in 1893.

Candidate of Philosophy

C.Phil.cand.phil.candidate degree
A student attaining this level may be granted a Candidate of Philosophy degree at some institutions or may be granted a master's degree en route to the doctoral degree.
Candidate of Philosophy can refer to the US degree or status of Candidate in Philosophy (C.Phil. or Ph.C) granted to Ph.D. students who have been accepted as candidates for that degree, or (as a direct translation) to degrees or former degrees at bachelor's or master's level from some Scandinavian countries.

Licentiate (degree)

licentiatelicentiate degreelicenciate
Besides these degrees, there was the licentiate.
A licentiate is a degree below that of a PhD given by universities in some countries.

Scientist

scientistsresearch scientistscience
The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields.
Upon completion, they would normally attain an academic degree, with the highest degree being a doctorate such as a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Doctor of Medicine (MD), Doctor of Engineering (DEng), or even a dual doctoral degree (e.g., MD, PhD).

Doctor of Musical Arts

DMAD.M.A.Doctorate of Musical Arts
Universities sometimes award other types of doctorate besides the PhD, such as the Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.) for music performers and the Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) for professional educators.
Students seeking doctoral training in musicology or music theory typically enter a Ph.D. program, rather than a D.M.A. program.

Yale University

YaleYale CollegeUniversity of Yale
So influential was this practice that it was imported to the United States, where in 1861 Yale University started granting the PhD degree to younger students who, after having obtained the bachelor's degree, had completed a prescribed course of graduate study and successfully defended a thesis or dissertation containing original research in science or in the humanities.
In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph.D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887.

Doctor of Medicine

M.D.MDmedical degree
In theory, the full course of studies might, for example, lead in succession to the degrees of Bachelor of Arts, Licentiate of Arts, Master of Arts, or Bachelor of Medicine, Licentiate of Medicine, or Doctor of Medicine, but before the early modern era, many exceptions to this existed. The slightly older degrees of Doctor of Science and Doctor of Literature/Letters still exist at British universities; together with the much older degrees of Doctor of Divinity (DD), Doctor of Music (DMus), Doctor of Civil Law (DCL) and Doctor of Medicine (MD), they form the higher doctorates, but apart from honorary degrees, they are only infrequently awarded.
Historically, Australian medical schools have followed the British tradition by conferring the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) to its graduates whilst reserving the title of Doctor of Medicine (MD) for their research training degree, analogous to the PhD, or for their honorary doctorates.

Academic degree

degreedegreesuniversity degree
Originally this was a license to teach, awarded shortly before the award of the master's or doctoral degree by the diocese in which the university was located, but later it evolved into an academic degree in its own right, in particular in the continental universities.
This led to the modern hierarchy in which the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), which in its present form as a degree based on research and dissertation is a development from 18th- and 19th-century German universities, is a more advanced degree than the Master of Arts (M.A.).

Eugene Schuyler

Schuyler, Eugene
In 1861, Yale awarded the first three earned PhDs in North America to Eugene Schuyler, Arthur Williams Wright, and James Morris Whiton, although honorary PhDs had been awarded in the U.S. for almost a decade, with Bucknell University awarding the first to Ebenezer Newton Elliott in 1852.
Schuyler was one of the first three Americans to earn a Ph.D. from an American university; and the first American translator of Ivan Turgenev and Lev Tolstoi.

Engineering

engineerengineersengineered
In some countries like China and Japan, a recipient of doctorate in disciplines such as engineering and pharmacology where professional degrees (for example, EngD and PharmD) are usually awarded in the western countries, is called a PhD regardless.
The first PhD in engineering (technically, applied science and engineering) awarded in the United States went to Josiah Willard Gibbs at Yale University in 1863; it was also the second PhD awarded in science in the U.S.

Doctor of Divinity

D.D.DDDoctorate of Divinity
The slightly older degrees of Doctor of Science and Doctor of Literature/Letters still exist at British universities; together with the much older degrees of Doctor of Divinity (DD), Doctor of Music (DMus), Doctor of Civil Law (DCL) and Doctor of Medicine (MD), they form the higher doctorates, but apart from honorary degrees, they are only infrequently awarded.
However, many universities award a PhD rather than a ThD to graduates of higher-level religious studies programs.

Association of American Universities

AAUAmerican Association of UniversitiesAmerican Association of American Colleges and Universities
This led to the formation of the Association of American Universities by 14 leading research universities (producing nearly 90% of the approximately 250 legitimate research doctorates awarded in 1900), with one of the main goals being to "raise the opinion entertained abroad of our own Doctor's Degree".
The AAU was founded on February 28, 1900, by a group of 14 Doctor of Philosophy degree–granting universities in the United States to strengthen and standardize American doctoral programs.

Doctor of Music

DMusDoctorate of MusicD.Mus.
The slightly older degrees of Doctor of Science and Doctor of Literature/Letters still exist at British universities; together with the much older degrees of Doctor of Divinity (DD), Doctor of Music (DMus), Doctor of Civil Law (DCL) and Doctor of Medicine (MD), they form the higher doctorates, but apart from honorary degrees, they are only infrequently awarded.
is also distinct from the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree in music, which is awarded in areas such as music history, music theory, and musicology.

Doctor of Pharmacy

PharmDPharm.D.Pharm.D
In some countries like China and Japan, a recipient of doctorate in disciplines such as engineering and pharmacology where professional degrees (for example, EngD and PharmD) are usually awarded in the western countries, is called a PhD regardless.
It is different from the postgraduate Ph.D. degree.

Postdoctoral researcher

postdoctoral researchpostdoctoralpostdoctoral fellow
These included a prediction by economist Richard B. Freeman that, based on pre-2000 data, only 20% of life science Ph.D. students would gain a faculty job in the U.S., and that in Canada 80% of postdoctoral research fellows earned less than or equal to an average construction worker ($38,600 a year).
A postdoctoral researcher or postdoc is a person professionally conducting research after the completion of their doctoral studies (typically a PhD).

Credentialism and educational inflation

CredentialismAcademic inflationCredential inflation
Similarly, an article on the Australian public service states that "credentialism in the public service is seeing a dramatic increase in the number of graduate positions going to PhDs and masters degrees becoming the base entry level qualification."
Some jobs that used to require a master's degree, such as junior scientific researcher positions and sessional lecturer jobs, now require a Ph.D.

Laurea

Laurea MagistralegraduatedLaurea degree
The degree was introduced in France in 1808, replacing diplomas as the highest academic degree; into Russia in 1819, when the Doktor Nauk degree, roughly equivalent to a PhD, gradually started replacing the specialist diploma, roughly equivalent to the MA, as the highest academic degree; and in Italy in 1927, when PhDs gradually started replacing the Laurea as the highest academic degree.
This is in contrast with the convention in countries where the title of doctor is restricted to holders of a PhD (or in some cases to medical doctors).

Post-nominal letters

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Alternatively, holders may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD", or "DPhil" (depending on the awarding institution).

Doctor of Law

Doctor of LawsLL.D.LLD
for Doctor philosophiae, Doctor of Philosophy; "Dr. iur." for Doctor iuris, Doctor of Laws).
or Dr. jur.), Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Juris Doctor (J.D.), and Legum Doctor (LL.D.).

Law

legallawslegal theory
In most of Europe, all fields (history, philosophy, social sciences, mathematics, and natural philosophy/sciences) other than theology, law, and medicine (the so-called professional, vocational, or technical curriculum) were traditionally known as philosophy, and in Germany and elsewhere in Europe the basic faculty of liberal arts was known as the "faculty of philosophy".
There are few titles of respect to signify famous lawyers, such as Esquire, to indicate barristers of greater dignity, and Doctor of law, to indicate a person who obtained a PhD in Law.

Clark University

ClarkClark CollegeClark (MA)
Major shifts toward graduate education were foretold by the opening of Clark University in 1887 which offered only graduate programs and the Johns Hopkins University which focused on its PhD program.
He became the founder of the American Psychological Association and earned the first Ph.D. in psychology in the United States at Harvard.

Johns Hopkins University

Johns HopkinsThe Johns Hopkins UniversityJohns Hopkins Medical Institutions
Major shifts toward graduate education were foretold by the opening of Clark University in 1887 which offered only graduate programs and the Johns Hopkins University which focused on its PhD program.
Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerous scholarly journals and associations.

Bucknell University

BucknellBucknell CollegeUniversity of Lewisburg
In 1861, Yale awarded the first three earned PhDs in North America to Eugene Schuyler, Arthur Williams Wright, and James Morris Whiton, although honorary PhDs had been awarded in the U.S. for almost a decade, with Bucknell University awarding the first to Ebenezer Newton Elliott in 1852.
Among American schools that do not offer a Ph.D. in engineering, Bucknell ranks tied for 6th for 2020, according to U.S. News & World Report.

Doctor of Arts

DAD.A.D.Arts
To counter this problem, the United States introduced the Doctor of Arts degree in 1970 with seed money from the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
The Doctor of Arts (D.A.; occasionally D.Arts or Art.D. from the Latin artium doctor) is a discipline-based terminal doctoral degree that was originally conceived and designed to be an alternative to the traditional research-based Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) and the education-based Doctor of Education (Ed.D.).