Doctorate

doctoraldoctoral degreedoctorate degreePhDdoctoral degreesdoctorPh.D.higher doctoratedoctor's degreedoctorates
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree, is an academic degree awarded by universities, derived from the ancient formalism licentia docendi ("licence to teach").wikipedia
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Academic degree

degreedegreesuniversity degree
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree, is an academic degree awarded by universities, derived from the ancient formalism licentia docendi ("licence to teach").
These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, usually including bachelor's, master's and doctorates, often alongside other academic certificates and professional degrees.

Ijazah

ijazaijaza-t al-tadris wa-l-iftaijazas
George Makdisi theorizes that the ijazah issued in early Islamic madrasahs was the origin of the doctorate later issued in medieval European universities.
George Makdisi theorized that the ijazah was the origin of the university academic degree as well as the doctorate.

Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg

University of HalleHalleUniversity of Wittenberg
The first women to be granted doctorates were Juliana Morell in 1608 at Lyons, Elena Cornaro Piscopia in 1678 at the University of Padua, Laura Bassi in 1732 at Bologna University, Dorothea Erxleben in 1754 at Halle University and María Isidra de Guzmán y de la Cerda in 1785 at Complutense University, Madrid.
MLU offers German and international (English) courses leading to academic degrees such as BA, BSc, MA, MSc, doctoral degrees and Habilitation.

Doctor of Medicine

M.D.MDmedical degree
The first professional doctorate to be offered in the United States was the M.D. at Kings College (now Columbia University) after the medical school's founding in 1767, although this was not a professional doctorate in the modern American sense as it was awarded for further study after the qualifying Bachelor of Medicine (M.B.) rather than being a qualifying degree. or D.E.S. ) (also awarded in Japan and South Korea), the UK Engineering Doctorate (EngD), the Dutch Professional Doctorate in Engineering (PDEng), the German engineering doctorate Doktoringenieur (Dr.-Ing.) the German natural science doctorate Doctor rerum naturalium (Dr. rer. nat.) and the economics and social science doctorate Doctor rerum politicarum (Dr. rer. pol.) The UK Doctor of Medicine (MD or MD (Res)) and Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) are research doctorates.
Thus, in the United Kingdom, Ireland and other countries, the M.D. is a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to those who already hold a professional degree in medicine; in those countries, the equivalent professional to the North American and some others use of M.D. is still typically titled Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.B.S.).

Doctor of Education

Ed.D.EdDEd.D
Other research doctorates include the Doctor of Education (Ed.D. or EdD ), Doctor of Arts (D.A. ), Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A. ), Doctor of Professional Studies/Professional Doctorate (ProfDoc or DProf), Doctor of Public Health (Dr.P.H. ), Doctor of Social Science (D.S.Sc.
The Doctor of Education (EdD or DEd; Latin Educationis Doctor or Doctor Educationis) is a doctoral degree that focuses on the field of education.

Juris Doctor

J.D.JDJuris Doctorate
Following the MD, the next professional doctorate, the Juris Doctor (J.D.), was established by the University of Chicago in 1902.
It has the academic standing of a professional doctorate (in contrast to a research doctorate) in the United States, a master's degree in Australia, and a second-entry, baccalaureate degree in Canada (in all three jurisdictions the same as other professional degrees such as M.D. or D.D.S./D.M.D., the degrees required to be a practicing physician or dentist, respectively).

Doctor of Musical Arts

DMAD.M.A.Doctorate of Musical Arts
Other research doctorates include the Doctor of Education (Ed.D. or EdD ), Doctor of Arts (D.A. ), Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A. ), Doctor of Professional Studies/Professional Doctorate (ProfDoc or DProf), Doctor of Public Health (Dr.P.H. ), Doctor of Social Science (D.S.Sc.
The Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.) is a doctoral academic degree in music.

Doctor of Public Health

DrPHDPHDoctorate of Public Health
Other research doctorates include the Doctor of Education (Ed.D. or EdD ), Doctor of Arts (D.A. ), Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A. ), Doctor of Professional Studies/Professional Doctorate (ProfDoc or DProf), Doctor of Public Health (Dr.P.H. ), Doctor of Social Science (D.S.Sc.
DrPH, Dr.PH. or D.P.H.; Latin doctor publica sanitas) is a doctoral degree awarded in the field of Public Health.

Complutense University of Madrid

Universidad Complutense de MadridUniversity of MadridComplutense University
The first women to be granted doctorates were Juliana Morell in 1608 at Lyons, Elena Cornaro Piscopia in 1678 at the University of Padua, Laura Bassi in 1732 at Bologna University, Dorothea Erxleben in 1754 at Halle University and María Isidra de Guzmán y de la Cerda in 1785 at Complutense University, Madrid.
In 1785, Complutense became one of the first universities in the world to grant a Doctorate to a female student, María Isidra de Guzmán y de la Cerda.

Doctor of Business Administration

DBAD.B.A.doctorate in business administration
or DSocSci ), Doctor of Management (D.M. or D.Mgt.), Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A. or DBA ), the UK Doctor of Management (DMan), various doctorates in engineering, such as the US Doctor of Engineering (D.Eng., D.E.Sc.
The Doctor of Business Administration (commonly abbreviated as D.B.A., DBA, DrBA, or BusD) is a research doctorate awarded on the basis of advanced study, examinations, project work and research in business administration.

Doctor of Engineering

D.Eng.DEngD. Eng.
or DSocSci ), Doctor of Management (D.M. or D.Mgt.), Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A. or DBA ), the UK Doctor of Management (DMan), various doctorates in engineering, such as the US Doctor of Engineering (D.Eng., D.E.Sc.
The Doctor of Engineering, or Engineering Doctorate, (abbreviated Eng.D., D.Eng., D.Engr., Dr.Eng., or Dr.-Ing.) is a doctoral degree awarded on the basis of advanced study and research in engineering and applied sciences.

Doctor of Management

DMD.M.Doctorate in Management
or DSocSci ), Doctor of Management (D.M. or D.Mgt.), Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A. or DBA ), the UK Doctor of Management (DMan), various doctorates in engineering, such as the US Doctor of Engineering (D.Eng., D.E.Sc.
or DMan) is a doctoral degree focusing on advanced study and research in the applied science and practice of professional management.

Bachelor's degree

bachelorbaccalaureatebachelor’s degree
However, while the licentia continued to hold a higher prestige than the bachelor's degree (baccalaureus), the latter was ultimately reduced to an intermediate step to the master's degree (magister) and doctorate, both of which now became the accepted teaching qualifications.
Since the new European system of 2004 LMD Bologna process was founded, it has become standard to recognize a bachelor's degree over three years with a licence degree, a master's degree over five years, and a doctorate over eight years.

Doctor of Arts

DAD.A.D.Arts
Other research doctorates include the Doctor of Education (Ed.D. or EdD ), Doctor of Arts (D.A. ), Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A. ), Doctor of Professional Studies/Professional Doctorate (ProfDoc or DProf), Doctor of Public Health (Dr.P.H. ), Doctor of Social Science (D.S.Sc.
The Doctor of Arts (D.A.; occasionally D.Arts or Art.D. from the Latin artium doctor) is a discipline-based terminal doctoral degree that was originally conceived and designed to be an alternative to the traditional research-based Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) and the education-based Doctor of Education (Ed.D.).

Doctor of Science

DScD.Sc.Sc.D.
Examples include the Doctor of Science (D.Sc.) and Doctor of Letters (D.Litt.) degrees found in the UK, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries, and the traditional doctorates in Scandinavia.
In some countries, "Doctor of Science" is the title used for the standard doctorate in the sciences; elsewhere the Sc.D. is a "higher doctorate" awarded in recognition of a substantial and sustained contribution to scientific knowledge beyond that required for a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD).

Doctor of Practical Theology

DThPT
or ThD ), Doctor of Practical Theology (DPT) and the Doctor of Sacred Theology (S.T.D., or D.S.Th.) are research doctorates in theology.
The is a professional doctorate developed for those seeking to apply theological principles to their professional practice.

Doktoringenieur

Dr.-Ing.Dr.-Ingdoctorate of engineering (Dr. Ing)
or D.E.S. ) (also awarded in Japan and South Korea), the UK Engineering Doctorate (EngD), the Dutch Professional Doctorate in Engineering (PDEng), the German engineering doctorate Doktoringenieur (Dr.-Ing.) the German natural science doctorate Doctor rerum naturalium (Dr. rer. nat.) and the economics and social science doctorate Doctor rerum politicarum (Dr. rer. pol.) The UK Doctor of Medicine (MD or MD (Res)) and Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) are research doctorates.
The Doktoringenieur (acronym Dr.-Ing., also Doktor der Ingenieurwissenschaften) is the German engineering doctorate degree, comparable to the Doctor of Engineering, Engineering Doctorate, Doctor of Science (Engineering), Doctor of Science (Technology) or a PhD in Engineering or Architecture.

Doctor of Juridical Science

S.J.D.J.S.D.SJD
Similarly in Australia, the term "professional doctorate" is sometimes applied to the Scientiae Juridicae Doctor (SJD), which, like the UK professional doctorates, is a research degree.
Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor of the Science of Law, (in Latin) Scientiae Juridicae Doctor or Juridicae Scientiae Doctor (sometimes also referred to as a Doctor of Laws), abbreviated S.J.D. or J.S.D., respectively, is a research doctorate in law equivalent to the more commonly awarded research doctorate, the Ph.D. It is offered primarily in the United States (where it originated), and in Canada and Australia.

Doctor of Philosophy

Ph.D.PhDPh.D
There are a number of doctoral degrees; the most common is the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), which is awarded in many different fields, ranging from the humanities to scientific disciplines.
The specific requirements to earn a PhD degree vary considerably according to the country, institution, and time period, from entry-level research degrees to higher doctorates.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
There are a number of doctoral degrees; the most common is the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), which is awarded in many different fields, ranging from the humanities to scientific disciplines.
In modern times, many professional scientists are trained in an academic setting and upon completion, attain an academic degree, with the highest degree being a doctorate such as a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Doctor of Medicine (MD), or Doctor of Engineering (DEng).

Licentiate (degree)

licentiatelicentiate degreelicenciate
Denmark offers four levels of degrees: 1) a three-year bachelor's degree (e.g. Bachelor of Arts degree); 2) a five-year candidate's degree (e.g. Candidatus/Candidata Magisterii), generally compared to a master's degree; 3) a ph.d. degree, which replaced the licentiate in 1988; 4) a doctor's degree (e.g. Doctor Philosophiae), which is the higher doctorate.
The former titles dr. med. and dr. iur. are to be considered as professional doctorates, whereas the title dr., which is the result of third level study and research, is a higher doctorate.

Yale University

YaleYale CollegeUniversity of Yale
The modern research degree, in the shape of the German-style Ph.D., was first awarded in the U.S. in 1861, at Yale University.
The college is, after normalization for institution size, the tenth-largest baccalaureate source of doctoral degree recipients in the United States, and the largest such source within the Ivy League.

Master's degree in Europe

master's degreeMasterMasters
The master's degree is a prerequisite.
The Bologna process for standardisation of European higher education specified an undergraduate degree of at least three years called the "licence" or bachelor's degree, followed by a two-year diploma called the master's degree, then a doctorate, meant to be obtained in at least three years.

Collection of articles

Compilation thesisthesis by publicationEssay thesis
Criteria for research doctorates vary, but typically require completion of a substantial body of original research, which may be presented as a single thesis or dissertation, or as a portfolio of shorter project reports (thesis by publication).
A thesis as a collection of articles or series of papers, also known as thesis by published works, or article thesis, is a doctoral dissertation that, as opposed to a coherent monograph, is a collection of research papers with an introductory section consisting of summary chapters.

Exegesis

exegeticalexegeteBiblical exegesis
Its roots can be traced to the early church in which the term doctor referred to the Apostles, church fathers, and other Christian authorities who taught and interpreted the Bible.
At Australian universities, the exegesis is part of practice-based doctorate projects.