A report on UniversityEducation and Doctorate

The University of Bologna in Italy, founded in 1088, is often regarded as the world's oldest university in continuous operation
Young children in a kindergarten in Japan
American academic doctors gather before the commencement exercises at Brigham Young University (April 2008). The American code for academic dress identifies academic doctors with three bands of velvet on the sleeve of the doctoral gown.
Harvard University, founded in 1636, is the oldest university in the United States and is routinely ranked among the world's best universities
Nepali village school students
Cover of the thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine degree (1843)
Moroccan higher-learning institution Al-Qarawiyin (founded in 859 A.D.) was transformed into a university under the supervision of the ministry of education in 1963.
A high-school senior (twelfth grade) classrooms in Calhan, Colorado, United States
The ancient ceremony of bestowing Complutense's Doctoral biretta.
Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris. From a medieval manuscript.
Students in a laboratory, Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University
Traditionally, the friends of a new doctor honored him painting a victor on the walls (in this case, the Seville Cathedral).
The University of Oxford is the oldest university in the United Kingdom and among the world's top ranked
Universities often host prominent guest speakers for student audiences, e.g. First Lady of the United States Michelle Obama delivering remarks at Peking University, Beijing, China
Ph.D. Gown, University of Cambridge
The University of St Andrews, founded in 1410, is Scotland's oldest university and one of the UK's best ranked universities.
Carpentry is normally learned through apprenticeship with an experienced carpenter.
In 1861, Yale University awarded the first Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree in the United States.
Old main building of the University of Basel—Switzerland's oldest university (1460). The university is among the birthplaces of Renaissance humanism
Teaching indigenous knowledge, models, and methods in Yanyuan County, Sichuan, China
17th-century classroom at the University of Salamanca
A volunteer reads aloud to children in Laos.
King's College London, established by Royal Charter having been founded by King George IV and Duke of Wellington in 1829, is one of the founding colleges of the University of London.
Children computing by David Shankbone
Peking University in Beijing was founded as the Imperial University of Peking
Beijing Normal University, which is governed directly by the Chinese Ministry of Education, is an example of collaboration between different entities in the education sector.
The University of Sydney is Australia's oldest university.
Historical Madrasah in Baku, Azerbaijan
The University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia in the United States was founded in 1819 by American founding father Thomas Jefferson
Nalanda, ancient centre for higher learning
Plato's academy, mosaic from Pompeii
Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi (right) in the Chinese edition of Euclid's Elements published in 1607
World map indicating Education Index (according to 2007/2008 Human Development Report)
The OLPC laptop being introduced to children in Haiti
A class size experiment in the United States found that attending small classes for three or more years in the early grades increased high school graduation rates of students from low income families.
Knowledge Day in Donetsk, Ukraine, 2013
John Locke's work Some Thoughts Concerning Education was written in 1693 and still reflects traditional education priorities in the Western world.
Computer-supported group learning

A university is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several academic disciplines.

- University

George Makdisi theorizes that the ijazah issued in early Islamic madrasahs was the origin of the doctorate later issued in medieval European universities.

- Doctorate

When the term education is used in the sense of an achievement or a product, expressions like type or level of education refer to the person's academic or professional qualification, such as high school completion, bachelor's degree, master's degree, doctor's degree, or degrees in vocational training.

- Education

It spans the period between the typically universal compulsory, primary education to the optional, selective tertiary, "postsecondary", or "higher" education of ISCED 5 and 6 (e.g. university), and the ISCED 4 Further education or vocational school.

- Education

Some states, such as Massachusetts, will only grant a school "university status" if it grants at least two doctoral degrees.

- University

Many fields offer professional doctorates (or professional master's) such as engineering, pharmacy, medicine, public health, dentistry, optometry, psychology, speech–language pathology, physical therapy, occupational therapy, health science, advanced practice registered nurse, chiropractic, naturopathic medicine, law, architecture, education, teaching, business, management, and others that require such degrees for professional practice or licensure.

- Doctorate
The University of Bologna in Italy, founded in 1088, is often regarded as the world's oldest university in continuous operation

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Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge


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Systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge
The first diagram of an evolutionary tree made by Charles Darwin in 1837
First global view of the ozone hole in 1983, using a space telescope
Radio light image of M87* black hole, made by the earth-spanning Event Horizon Telescope array in 2019
Supply and demand curve in economics, crossing over at the optimal equilibrium
A steam turbine with the case opened, such turbines produce most of the electricity used today
A diagram variant of scientific method represented as an ongoing process
Cover of the first issue of Nature, 4 November 1869
For Kuhn, the addition of epicycles in Ptolemaic astronomy was "normal science" within a paradigm, whereas the Copernican revolution was a paradigm shift.
Marie Curie was the first person to be awarded two Nobel Prizes: Physics in 1903 and Chemistry in 1911.
Picture of scientists in 200th anniversary of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, 1900
Medal of the Nobel Prize, one of the most well-known science awards
Budget of NASA as percentage of United States federal budget, peaking at 4.4% in 1966 and slowly decline since
Dinosaur exhibit in the Houston Museum of Natural Science

In modern times, many professional scientists are trained in an academic setting and upon completion, attain an academic degree, with the highest degree being a doctorate such as a Doctor of Philosophy or PhD. Many scientists pursue careers in various sectors of the economy such as academia, industry, government, and nonprofit organizations.

In the OECD, around two-thirds of research and development in scientific and technical fields is carried out by industry, and 20% and 10% respectively by universities and government.

As a student advances into higher stages of formal education, the curriculum becomes more in depth.