Domestic worker

Domestic workers in the United States in 1914
Memorial valuing the work of Maria Home, the servant in Warwick Castle (1834)
A Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) Chinese ceramic figurine of a lady's maid in a standard formal pose with hands covered by long sleeve cuffs in the traditional fashion
Cook (1855)
Parisian maid (1906) (Image by Constant Puyo)
A domestic servant ironing a lace doily with GE electric iron, ca. 1908
Child maid servant in India. Child domestic workers are common in India, with the children often being sent by their parents to earn extra money, although it is banned by the government.
Male servants carrying a palanquin and female maid with a traditional fan (Korea c. 1904)
Alipin (Slaves/Indentured Servants) in Pre-colonial Philippines: Visayan uripon, as depicted in the Boxer Codex (c. 1590)
A valet in India, c. 1870
A terracotta statue of a washerwoman (18th century)
A French wet nurse
Alonzo Fields, butler at the White House
The Chocolate Girl, by Jean-Étienne Liotard (c. 1734–1744)
A poster of an American maid in uniform (ca. 1939)
Young water carrier drawing by Heinrich Zille (by 1929)
Colonial dining, William Henry Jackson (1895)

Person who works within the scope of a residence.

- Domestic worker
Domestic workers in the United States in 1914

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A modern striped bow tie neck blouse and a navy blue mini skirt.

Blouse

Loose-fitting upper garment that was worn by workmen, peasants, artists, women, and children.

Loose-fitting upper garment that was worn by workmen, peasants, artists, women, and children.

A modern striped bow tie neck blouse and a navy blue mini skirt.
A camisole being used as a blouse.
A man and woman wearing poet shirts—a unisex blouse, inspired by Romanticism and worn by fashionable people such as the English poet, Lord Byron
The Seinfeld "puffy shirt", worn by Jerry Seinfeld, is an example of a poet shirt blouse.
Giuseppe Garibaldi (center), the Italian patriot and his wife, Anita (right), popularized the red, Garibaldi shirt, a type of military blouse, which became popular, as early 1860s, civilian fashion, with men and women, both, in Europe and the North America.
Blouses from 1890-1900 Australia.
A Japanese blouse (left), in 1951.
A woman wearing a dirndl. The white part on her body and arms is the blouse.
A young Highland dancer wearing the Aboyne dress prescribed for female dancers for the National dances.

Female servants were in charge of buttoning their mistress's gowns (since the buttons were usually in the back).

Downton Abbey

British historical drama television series set in the early 20th century, created and co-written by Julian Fellowes.

British historical drama television series set in the early 20th century, created and co-written by Julian Fellowes.

Michelle Dockery plays Lady Mary Crawley, the eldest Grantham daughter.
Dan Stevens plays Matthew Crawley.
Allen Leech plays Tom Branson, the chauffeur who marries into the Crawley family.
Highclere Castle as Downton Abbey
Penelope Wilton (left) plays Isobel Crawley; Jim Carter plays the butler, Mr Carson.
Robert James-Collier plays the footman turned under-butler, Mr Thomas Barrow.
Highclere Castle, Hampshire
Byfleet Manor, Surrey
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Kingston Bagpuize House, Oxfordshire
Beamish Museum, County Durham
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Downton Abbey creator Julian Fellowes
Bampton, Oxfordshire
St Mary's Church, Bampton
Bampton Library, Bampton
Churchgate House (the old rectory), Bampton
Bridgewater House, Westminster, London
Inveraray Castle, Argyll

The series, set on the fictional Yorkshire country estate of Downton Abbey between 1912 and 1926, depicts the lives of the aristocratic Crawley family and their domestic servants in the post-Edwardian era—the great events of the time having an effect on their lives and on the British social hierarchy.

King Edward VII by Fildes (c. 1901, detail)

Edwardian era

Sometimes extended to the start of the First World War.

Sometimes extended to the start of the First World War.

King Edward VII by Fildes (c. 1901, detail)
Leaders of the Labour Party in 1906
The medical staff of No. 1 Stationary Hospital at Ladysmith
A Liberal poster c. 1905–1910
H. H. Asquith
"Wild Fare". Cartoonist John Bernard Partridge depicts Lloyd George as a giant with a cudgel labelled "Budget" in reference to his People's Budget; Asquith cowers beneath the table. Punch 28 April 1909
The British Dreadnought (1906) made all battleships obsolete because it had ten long-range 12-inch big guns, mechanical computer-like range finders, high speed turbine engines that could make 21 knots, and armour plates 11 inches thick.
Oilette postcard with art by Phil May, published by Raphael Tuck & Sons, circa 1910s
Mary Macarthur addressing the crowds during the chain makers' strike, Cradley Heath, 1910
A cartoon in Punch (1911) compares changes in fashion between 1901 and 1911. "The dowdy voluminous clothes of the earlier date, making the grandmother an old lady and the mother seem plain, had been replaced by much simpler looser wear producing a sense of release for all three females."
Peter Pan statue, Kensington Gardens
The 1908 Summer Olympics in London: The water jump in the steeplechase
1911 Michelin Guide

Below the upper class, the era was marked by significant shifts in politics among sections of society that had largely been excluded from power, such as labourers, servants, and the industrial working class.

Relief depicting slaves in chains in the Roman Empire, at Smyrna, 200 CE

Slavery

Someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property.

Someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property.

Relief depicting slaves in chains in the Roman Empire, at Smyrna, 200 CE
Flogging a slave fastened to the ground, illustration in an 1853 anti-slavery pamphlet
A poster for a slave auction in Georgia, U.S., 1860
Portrait of an older woman in New Orleans with her enslaved servant girl in the mid-19th century
The work of the Mercedarians was in ransoming Christian slaves held in North Africa (1637).
Sale and inspection of slaves
Branding of a female slave
Barefooted slaves depicted in David Roberts' Egypt and Nubia, issued between 1845 and 1849
Slave branding, c. 1853
Corinthian black-figure terra-cotta votive tablet of slaves working in a mine, dated to the late seventh century BC
Ishmaelites purchase Joseph, by Schnorr von Carolsfeld, 1860
Slave Market in Ancient Rome, by Jean-Léon Gérôme
13th-century slave market in Yemen.
Adalbert of Prague pleads with Boleslaus II, Duke of Bohemia for the release of slaves
A British captain witnessing the miseries of slaves in Ottoman Algeria, 1815
Crimean Tatar raiders enslaved more than 1 million Eastern Europeans.
19th-century engraving depicting an Arab slave-trading caravan transporting black African slaves across the Sahara Desert.
Slave market in Algiers, 1684
Arab-Swahili slave traders and their captives on the Ruvuma River in East Africa, 19th century
A model showing a cross-section of a typical 1700s European slave ship on the Middle Passage, National Museum of American History.
Statue of Bussa, who led the largest slave rebellion in Barbadian history.
Public flogging of a slave in 19th-century Brazil, by Johann Moritz Rugendas
Slave punishment by Jacques Étienne Arago, 1839.
Slaves in Cuba unloading ice from Maine, 1832
Saint-Domingue slave revolt in 1791
Planting the sugar cane, British West Indies, 1823
On March 22, 1873, Spain abolished slavery in Puerto Rico. The owners were compensated.
Funeral at slave plantation, Dutch Suriname. 1840–1850.
A coffle of slaves being driven on foot from Staunton, Virginia to Tennessee in 1850.
Whipping keloid scars of escaped slave, Gordon, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (1863). This famous photo was distributed by abolitionists.
Slaves on a Virginia plantation (The Old Plantation, c. 1790).
A contract from the Tang dynasty recording the purchase of a 15-year-old slave for six bolts of plain silk and five coins.
Kisaeng, women from outcast or slave families who were trained to provide entertainment, conversation, and sexual services to men of the upper class.
Persian slave in the Khanate of Khiva, 19th century
Workers being forced to haul rocks up a hill in a Gulag
Forced slave labourers in a Buchenwald concentration camp during World War II
Modern incidence of slavery, as a percentage of the population, by country.
Tuareg society is traditionally feudal, ranging from nobles, through vassals, to dark-skinned slaves.
A world map showing countries by prevalence of female trafficking
Chinese Emperor Wang Mang abolished slavery in 17 CE but the ban was overturned after his assassination.
Olaudah Equiano, His autobiography, published in 1789, helped in the creation of the Slave Trade Act 1807 which ended the African slave trade for Britain and its colonies.
Joseph Jenkins Roberts, born in Virginia, was the first president of Liberia, which was founded in 1822 for freed American slaves.
Poster for Spartacus

In industrialised countries, human trafficking is a modern variety of slavery; in non-industrialised countries, enslavement by debt bondage is a common form of enslaving a person, such as captive domestic servants, forced marriage, and child soldiers.

World Fair of 1900 in Paris, France.

Belle Époque

Term often given to a period of French and European history, usually dated to between 1871–80 and the outbreak of World War I in 1914.

Term often given to a period of French and European history, usually dated to between 1871–80 and the outbreak of World War I in 1914.

World Fair of 1900 in Paris, France.
Grand foyer of the Folies Bergère cabaret
Art Nouveau style coffee service in Meissen Porcelain, by Theodor Grust, 1902.
A 1900 cartoon from magazine Le Frou Frou (signed "Jan Duch") satirising a style trend favouring small breasts (a large bosom may still be acceptable in the provinces, but not in Paris!). A "boyish figure" didn't actually become a mainstream fashion ideal until the 1920s.
Europe during the Belle Époque (1911).
A newspaper headline for Émile Zola's open letter to the French government and the country, condemning the treatment of Captain Alfred Dreyfus during the Dreyfus affair
The pith helmet is an icon of colonialism in the tropical areas of the planet.
World Empires 1900. British Empire (pink) is the most powerful in the world at this time, due to among other reasons the naval dominance of the Royal Navy.
Peugeot Type 3 built in France in 1891
A telegraph used to emit in morse code.
The sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912 is the best-known tragedy of the era.
The Wright Flyer: the first sustained flight with a powered, controlled aircraft (1903).
The world's first movie poster, for the comedy L'Arroseur Arrosé, 1895
Auguste Renoir, Bal du moulin de la Galette, 1876, oil on canvas, 131 × 175 cm, Musée d'Orsay
Year 2000 video telephony as imagined in France in 1910
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), Museum of Modern Art, New York
A French poster from 1894 by Jules Chéret that captures the vibrant spirit of the Belle Époque.
Map of the Colonial Empires (and their colonies) in the year 1885, when after the Berlin Conference of that year the Partition of Africa between the colonial powers began.
Flag-map of the world (1900).
Flag-map of the world (1914), just before the start of World War I (1914-1918), which ended the stage of the Belle Époque.
Art Nouveau building in Paris by architect Jules Lavirotte, sculptures by Jean-François Larrivé (1875–1928)
La charmeuse de Serpents (The Snake-Charmer) (1907) by Henri Rousseau
Modern dance (and modern stage lighting) innovator Loie Fuller
Jules Massenet and Jean Richepin (the latter as Apollo Citharoedus), authors of Le mage, premiered at the Opéra-Comique in Paris on 16 March 1891

The Paris Métro underground railway system joined the omnibus and streetcar in transporting the working population, including those servants who did not live in the wealthy centers of cities.

A homestay in Vietnam

Au pair

Helper from a foreign country working for, and living as part of, a host family.

Helper from a foreign country working for, and living as part of, a host family.

A homestay in Vietnam

The title comes from the French term au pair, meaning "at par" or "equal to", indicating that the relationship is intended to be one of equals: the au pair is intended to become a member of the family, albeit a temporary one, rather than a traditional domestic worker.

A butler in the White House Butler's Pantry.

Butler

A butler in the White House Butler's Pantry.
Butler c. 1922
A slave in charge of wine in ancient Rome.
A pincerna depicted in service to a noble court during the Medieval Era.
In a large house, the butler (centre-left) is traditionally head over a full array of household servants. This is the servant staff at the Stonehouse Hill of Massachusetts, the estate of Frederick Lothrop Ames, 1914.
Glanusk Park in Powys, U.K., in 1891. The residence had 17 servants in residence. The largest stately houses could have 40 or more.
Robert Roberts's The House Servant's Directory, 1827.
Heads of Six of Hogarth's Servants

A butler is a person who works in a house serving and is a domestic worker in a large household.

Illustration by William Thomas Smedley, 1906

Maid

Illustration by William Thomas Smedley, 1906
La Toilette by Raimundo Madrazo, c. 1890–1900
A maid cleaning in Denmark in 1912.
George Clive and his family with an Indian maid, painted 1765. As she appears to be caring for the child, she may be an ayah.

A maid, or housemaid or maidservant, is a female domestic worker.

Overseas Filipino Worker

Term often used to refer to Filipino migrant workers, people with Filipino citizenship who reside in another country for a limited period of employment.

Term often used to refer to Filipino migrant workers, people with Filipino citizenship who reside in another country for a limited period of employment.

Official sample of an Overseas Filipino Worker (OFW) ID Card.

Filipino women often fill "the demand for unskilled, low-paid domestic work in high-income countries".

A variety of uniforms used in the Canadian Militia, 1898.

Uniform

Variety of clothing worn by members of an organization while participating in that organization's activity.

Variety of clothing worn by members of an organization while participating in that organization's activity.

A variety of uniforms used in the Canadian Militia, 1898.
Uniformed newspaper vendors in Mexico City. Employers in some workplaces require their employees to wear a uniform.
A Russian honor guard wearing their full dress uniforms. Full dress is a formal uniform typically worn in ceremonies.
Taiwan schoolgirls in uniform during the time of Japanese rule there, 1927.
A uniformed police officer in Sweden. The police often wear uniforms to distinguish themselves in public.
Prisoners in Utah (c. 1885) wearing striped prison uniforms. Prisons often require inmates to wear uniforms.
Statue of a Boy Scout in uniform. The Scout uniform is a specific characteristic of scouting used in most of their events.

Domestic workers are often required by their employers-managers to wear a uniform.