Domestication

domesticateddomesticdomesticatedomesticated animalsdomestic animalsdomesticatingDomestication of plantsdomesticablesemi-tametame
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.wikipedia
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Landrace

landracesnatural breedautochthonous
Domestication traits are generally fixed within all domesticates, and were selected during the initial episode of domestication of that animal or plant, whereas improvement traits are present only in a proportion of domesticates, though they may be fixed in individual breeds or regional populations.
A landrace is a domesticated, locally adapted, traditional variety of a species of animal or plant that has developed over time, through adaptation to its natural and cultural environment of agriculture and pastoralism, and due to isolation from other populations of the species.

Agriculture

farmingagriculturalagriculturist
The dog was the first domesticated vertebrate, and was established across Eurasia before the end of the Late Pleistocene era, well before cultivation and before the domestication of other animals.
Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities.

Origin of the domestic dog

dogsdomestication of the dogdog
The dog was the first domesticated vertebrate, and was established across Eurasia before the end of the Late Pleistocene era, well before cultivation and before the domestication of other animals.
The dog and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa, as modern wolves are not closely related to the wolves that were first domesticated.

Donkey

burroassdonkeys
The archaeological and genetic data suggest that long-term bidirectional gene flow between wild and domestic stocks – including donkeys, horses, New and Old World camelids, goats, sheep, and pigs – was common.
The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.

Goat

goatsdomestic goatmilk
The archaeological and genetic data suggest that long-term bidirectional gene flow between wild and domestic stocks – including donkeys, horses, New and Old World camelids, goats, sheep, and pigs – was common.
The domestic goat or simply goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of C. aegagrus domesticated from the wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.

Domestication of the horse

domesticateddomesticated horsesdomestication
The archaeological and genetic data suggest that long-term bidirectional gene flow between wild and domestic stocks – including donkeys, horses, New and Old World camelids, goats, sheep, and pigs – was common.
How and when horses became domesticated is disputed.

Chicken

chickenshenhens
Among birds, the major domestic species today is the chicken, important for meat and eggs, though economically valuable poultry include the turkey, guineafowl and numerous other species. Domesticated birds principally mean poultry, raised for meat and eggs: some Galliformes (chicken, turkey, guineafowl) and Anseriformes (waterfowl: duck, goose, swan).
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.

Poultry

drumstickdomestic fowlpoultry meat
Among birds, the major domestic species today is the chicken, important for meat and eggs, though economically valuable poultry include the turkey, guineafowl and numerous other species. Domesticated birds principally mean poultry, raised for meat and eggs: some Galliformes (chicken, turkey, guineafowl) and Anseriformes (waterfowl: duck, goose, swan).
Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.

History of agriculture

agricultureagricultural historydevelopment of agriculture
Agriculture developed in at least 11 different centres around the world, domesticating different crops and animals.
The history of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively.

Calabash

bottle gourdgourdbottle gourds
The domestication of plants began at least 12,000 years ago with cereals in the Middle East, and the bottle gourd in Asia.
Today's gourd may owe its tough, waterproof wall to selection pressures over its long history of domestication.

Livestock

farm animalsfarm animalstock
Animals domesticated for home companionship are called pets, while those domesticated for food or work are known as livestock.
Livestock is commonly defined as domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.

Honey bee

honeybeehoneybeeshoney bees
The longest established invertebrate domesticates are the honey bee and the silkworm.
Only two species have been truly domesticated: Apis mellifera and Apis cerana indica.

Domestication of animals

animal domesticationdomesticateddomesticated animals
The domestication of animals and plants began with the wolf (Canis lupus) at least 15,000 years before present (YBP), which then led to a rapid shift in the evolution, ecology, and demography of both humans and numerous species of animals and plants.
Charles Darwin recognized the small number of traits that made domesticated species different from their wild ancestors.

Dog

dogsCanis lupus familiariscanine
The sudden appearance of the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) in the archaeological record was followed by livestock and crop domestication, and the transition of humans from foraging to farming in different places and times across the planet.
The dog and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa as modern wolves are not closely related to the wolves that were first domesticated, which implies that the direct ancestor of the dog is extinct.

Horse

horsesracehorseequine
The archaeological and genetic data suggest that long-term bidirectional gene flow between wild and domestic stocks – including donkeys, horses, New and Old World camelids, goats, sheep, and pigs – was common.
Humans began domesticating horses around 4000 BC, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses.

Animal husbandry

husbandrybreedingcattle breeding
In both of these cases, humans became entangled with these species as the relationship between them, and the human role in their survival and reproduction, intensified, leading eventually to a formalised animal husbandry.
Husbandry has a long history, starting with the Neolithic revolution when animals were first domesticated, from around 13,000 BC onwards, antedating farming of the first crops.

Pig

pigsSuswild pig
The archaeological and genetic data suggest that long-term bidirectional gene flow between wild and domestic stocks – including donkeys, horses, New and Old World camelids, goats, sheep, and pigs – was common.
Pigs have been domesticated since ancient times in the Old World.

Galliformes

game birdgamebirdgalliform
Domesticated birds principally mean poultry, raised for meat and eggs: some Galliformes (chicken, turkey, guineafowl) and Anseriformes (waterfowl: duck, goose, swan).
Several species have been domesticated during their long and extensive relationships with humans.

Domestic pigeon

domesticated pigeonspigeondomesticated pigeon
Domestic pigeon is known as a messenger, research suggests it was domesticated as early as 10,000 years ago.
The rock pigeon is the world's oldest domesticated bird.

Turkey (bird)

turkeyturkeysMeleagris
Among birds, the major domestic species today is the chicken, important for meat and eggs, though economically valuable poultry include the turkey, guineafowl and numerous other species. Domesticated birds principally mean poultry, raised for meat and eggs: some Galliformes (chicken, turkey, guineafowl) and Anseriformes (waterfowl: duck, goose, swan).
A second theory arises from turkeys coming to England not directly from the Americas, but via merchant ships from the Middle East, where they were domesticated successfully.

Western honey bee

Apis melliferahoney beeshoney bee
Two insects, the silkworm and the western honey bee, have been domesticated for over 5,000 years, often for commercial use.
The western honey bee was one of the first domesticated insects, and it is the primary species maintained by beekeepers to this day for both its honey production and pollination activities.

Tame animal

tamedtamingtame
Domestication should not be confused with taming.
In other languages, such as Spanish, the word for taming is the same as the word for domestication.

Red junglefowl

Gallus gallusred jungle fowlGallus gallus domesticus
The chicken's wild ancestor is Gallus gallus, the red junglefowl of Southeast Asia, and another species, probably the grey junglefowl of India.
The red junglefowl was first domesticated at least 5000 years ago in Asia.

Pet

petscompanion animalscompanion animal
Animals domesticated for home companionship are called pets, while those domesticated for food or work are known as livestock.
While many people have kept many different species of animals in captivity over the course of human history, only a relative few have been kept long enough to be considered domesticated.

Honey

bee honeyforest honeyhonied
The silkworm is raised for the silk threads wound around its pupal cocoon; the western honey bee, for honey, and, lately, for pollination of crops.
By contriving for bee swarms to nest in human-made hives, people have been able to semidomesticate the insects and harvest excess honey.