Dominance hierarchy

dominance hierarchiesdominancedominationdominanthierarchysocial rankbrood hierarchydominatehierarchicalhierarchies
Dominance hierarchy is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of a social group interact, to create a ranking system.wikipedia
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Dominance (ethology)

dominancedominantdominance hierarchies
Based on repetitive interactions a social order is created that is subject to change each time a dominant animal is challenged by a subordinate one.
Dominance may be a purely dyadic relationship, i.e. individual A is dominant over individual B, but this has no implications for whether either of these is dominant over a third individual C. Alternatively, dominance may be hierarchical, with a transitive relationship, so that if A dominates B and B dominates C, A always dominates C. This is called a linear dominance hierarchy.

African wild dog

painted hunting dogAfrican wild dogswild dog
In African wild dogs which live in social packs separated into male and female hierarchies, top ranking alpha females have been observed to produce 76-81% of all litters. Examples of despotic social systems are found in meerkat, gray wolf, gorilla, Neolamprologus pulcher, and African wild dog.
The African wild dog is a highly social animal, living in packs with separate dominance hierarchies for males and females.

Vervet monkey

vervet monkeysvervetCercopithecus aethiops
In populations of Kenyan vervets, high-ranking females have higher foraging success when the food resources are clumped, but when food is distributed throughout an area they lose their advantage because subordinate females can acquire food with less risk of encountering a dominant female.
Separate dominance hierarchies are found for each sex.

Hierarchy

hierarchicalsubordinatehierarchies
Dominance hierarchy is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of a social group interact, to create a ranking system.
Organizations can be structured as a dominance hierarchy.

Polistes fuscatus

P. fuscatus
In some wasps, such as Polistes fuscatus, instead of not laying eggs, the female workers begin being able to reproduce, but once being under the presence of dominant females, the subordinate female workers can no longer reproduce.
P. fuscatus is a social wasp that is part of a complex society based around a single dominant queen along with other cofoundresses and a dominance hierarchy.

Chacma baboon

Papio ursinusbaboonBaboons
In chacma baboons, the high-ranking males have the first access to vertebrate prey that has been caught by the group, and in yellow baboons the dominant males feed for longer without being interrupted.
Chacma troops are characterized by a dominance hierarchy.

Dragonet

Callionymidaedragonets
For example, in the dragonet, males form hierarchies that are often exhibited during mating.
Male dragonets form dominance hierarchies and act extremely aggressively towards each other.

Elephant

elephantstrunkelephant tusk
It is also observed in elephants.
A dominance hierarchy exists among males, whether they range socially or solitarily.

Aggression

aggressiveaggressivenessaggressive behavior
These hierarchies are not fixed and depend on any number of changing factors, among them are age, gender, body size, intelligence, and aggressiveness.
One of its most common functions is to establish a dominance hierarchy.

Dunnock

hedge sparrowPrunella modularisaccentors
In dunnocks, two or three males may share one or more females in a polyandrous or polygynandrous mating system.
Males exhibit a strong dominance hierarchy within groups: older birds tend to be the dominant males and first-year birds are usually sub-dominant.

Polistes exclamans

P. exclamans
This is also true in the species Polistes instabilis, where the next queen is selected based on age rather than size.Polistes exclamans also exhibits this type of hierarchy.
In reflection of this dominance ranking and the behavior of the female workers, it is seen that when a queen is no longer present in the colony, the next eldest worker becomes the new queen.

Polistes annularis

P. annularis
In eusocial insects, aggressive interactions between sexuals are common determinants of reproductive status, such as in the bumblebee Bombus bifarius, the paper wasp Polistes annularis and in the ants Dinoponera australis and D. quadriceps.
annularis'' demonstrates behavior typical of other polistine wasps, and has a dominance hierarchy, relatively small colony size, and a female-biased sex ratio.

Social status

statussuccesssocial ladder
Thus, individuals with higher social status tend to have greater reproductive success by mating more often and having more resources to invest in the survival of offspring.
Social dominance hierarchy emerges from individual survival-seeking behaviors.

Worker policing

policingqueen policingSocial policing
"Worker policing" is an additional mechanism that prevents reproduction by workers, found in bees and ants.
Not all forms of policing require the presence of a queen; it also occurs in a few species of ants which establish a dominance hierarchy of reproductive female workers, where top-ranking individuals reproduce.

Sexual conflict

conflict between the sexessexually antagonisticconflict
The manifestation of intrasexual conflict can be observed in one of two systems.
Animal species that are not in a state of sexual conflict are more likely to be in sync to the male dominance hierarchy as the females are more docile in these organizations such as wolves, common rabbits and crocodiles.

Neolamprologus pulcher

N. pulcher
Examples of despotic social systems are found in meerkat, gray wolf, gorilla, Neolamprologus pulcher, and African wild dog.
Within a group of breeding and helper cichlids, there exists a dominance hierarchy among every fish in the group.

Pecking order

dominant otherslow henpeck orders
In a linear ranking system (often referred to as a pecking order), every member of the gender is recognized as either dominant or submissive relative to every other member, creating a linear distribution of rank.
The term dominance hierarchy is often used for this type of social organisation in other animals.

Serotonin

5-HTserotonergic5-hydroxytryptamine
Another area that has been associated is the dorsal raphe nucleus, the primary serotonergic nuclei (a neurotransmitter involved with many behaviors including reward and learning).
If lobsters are injected with serotonin, they behave like dominant individuals whereas octopamine causes subordinate behavior.

Dinoponera quadriceps

D. quadriceps
In eusocial insects, aggressive interactions between sexuals are common determinants of reproductive status, such as in the bumblebee Bombus bifarius, the paper wasp Polistes annularis and in the ants Dinoponera australis and D. quadriceps.
In Dinoponera quadriceps, dominance hierarchies tend to be relatively short where only a few individuals actively compete for reproduction.

Interpersonal complementarity hypothesis

The interpersonal complementarity hypothesis suggests that obedience and authority are reciprocal, complementary processes.
This behavioral congruency, as it applies to obedience and authority, has been illustrated in several studies assessing power hierarchies present in groups.

Blue-footed booby

blue-footed boobiesSula nebouxiiBlue footed booby
The blue-footed booby brood of two chicks always has a dominance hierarchy due to the asynchronous hatching of the eggs.
This pattern of behavior arguably occurs through a clearly established brood hierarchy in asynchronously hatched siblings.

Sociality

gregarioussocial animalsolitary
Dominance hierarchy is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of a social group interact, to create a ranking system.

Mating

matematescopulation
In social living groups, members are likely to compete for access to limited resources and mating opportunities.

Foraging

forageforagesforagers
Another benefit to high ranking individuals is increased foraging success and access to food resources.

Dark-eyed junco

Junco hyemalisgray-headed juncoJunco hyemalis hyemalis
In many bird species the dominant individuals have higher rates of food intake including dark-eyed juncos and oystercatchers.