Dominate

Roman dominatedominatingdominionLate Empirelate imperiallate Roman Empiremultiple emperorsstrengthening the control of the emperor
The Dominate or late Roman Empire is the name sometimes given to the "despotic" later phase of imperial government, following the earlier period known as the "Principate", in the ancient Roman Empire.wikipedia
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Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
The Dominate or late Roman Empire is the name sometimes given to the "despotic" later phase of imperial government, following the earlier period known as the "Principate", in the ancient Roman Empire.
Although fragmented briefly during the military crisis, the empire was forcibly reassembled, then ruled by multiple emperors who shared rule over the Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and the Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople.

Principate

Roman Principateearly EmpirePrinceps civitatis
The Dominate or late Roman Empire is the name sometimes given to the "despotic" later phase of imperial government, following the earlier period known as the "Principate", in the ancient Roman Empire.
The Principate is the name sometimes given to the first period of the Roman Empire from the beginning of the reign of Augustus in 27 BC to the end of the Crisis of the Third Century in 284 AD, after which it evolved into the so-called Dominate.

Consortium imperii

Consors imperiijoint emperor
Under the Dominate, the burden of the imperial position was increasingly shared between colleagues, referred to as the Consortium imperii.
Consortium imperii is a Latin term dating from the Roman Dominate, denoting the sharing of imperial authority between two or more emperors, each hence designated as consors imperii, i.e. "partner in (exercising) imperium", either as formal equals or in subordination, in which case the junior was often the senior's designated heir—not necessarily the natural one—and successor.

Rome

Rome, ItalyRomanRoma
It was during the Crisis of the Third Century that the traditional imperial approach of a single imperial magistrate based at Rome became unable to cope with multiple and simultaneous invasions and usurpations that required the emperor to be everywhere at once.
He ended the Principate and introduced the so-called dominate which tried to give the impression of absolute power.

Roman emperor

EmperoremperorsWestern Roman Emperor
The modern term dominate is derived from the Latin dominus, which translates into English as lord or master. Dominus, traditionally used by Roman slaves to address their masters, was sporadically used in addressing emperors throughout the Principate, usually in the form of excessive flattery (or political invective) when referring to the emperor. One of the most visible signs of the changes brought about by the Dominate was the downgrading of Rome from its status as the official residence of the emperor.
The use of princeps and dominus broadly symbolise the differences in the empire's government, giving rise to the era designations "Principate" and "Dominate".

Vicarius

vicarvicariiVicars
Interposed between the governors and the emperors was the Vicarius and, above him, the Praetorian Prefect, both of which were civilian (non-military) roles.
Later, in the 290s, the Emperor Diocletian carried out a series of administrative reforms, ushering in the period of the Dominate.

Gallienus

Publius Licinius Egnatius GallienusEmperor GallienusGalienus
Although Diocletian is commonly thought of as creator of the Dominate, its origins lie in the innovations of earlier emperors, principally those undertaken by Aurelian (AD 270–275) some stretching back to the reign of Gallienus (AD 253–268).
In Southern's view, these reforms and the decline in senatorial influence not only helped Aurelian to salvage the Empire, but they also make Gallienus one of the emperors most responsible for the creation of the Dominate, along with Septimius Severus, Diocletian, and Constantine I.

Dux

douxducesduke
The various Frontier Troops were under the command of Dukes ("duces limitis" or "border commanders").
During the time of the Dominate, the powers of a dux were split from the role of the governor and were given to a new office called dux.

Roman governor

governorgovernorsgovernorship
The most significant change was the return of provincial government to the senatorial order, with the larger or more important provinces handed over to those senators who had held an ordinary consulship.
Under the Dominate, i.e. the Late Roman Empire, the emperor Diocletian began in AD 293 reforms of the provincial administration that were completed under the Emperor Constantine the Great in 318.

Ancient Rome

RomanRomansRome
One of the most visible signs of the changes brought about by the Dominate was the downgrading of Rome from its status as the official residence of the emperor.
Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century before some stability was restored in the Dominate phase of imperial rule.

Princeps

princeps iuventutisFirst Citizenprinceps civitatis
They ceased using the more modest title of princeps; they adopted the veneration of the potentates of ancient Egypt and Persia; and, they started wearing jeweled robes and shoes in contrast to the simple toga praetexta used by Emperors of the Principate.
As a result, the Roman Empire from Augustus to Diocletian is termed the "principate" (principatus) and from Diocletian onwards as the "dominate" (dominatus).

Roman province

provinceprovincesRoman provinces
Now all provinces, dioceses and Praetorian prefectures were under the authority of the emperor.
Some scholars use the reorganization of the empire into themata in this period as one of the demarcations between the Dominate and the Byzantine (or the Later Roman) period.

Constitution of the Late Roman Empire

* Constitution of the Late Roman Empire
As a matter of historical convention, the late Roman Empire emerged from the Roman Principate (the early Roman Empire), with the accession of Diocletian in AD 284, his reign marking the beginning of the Dominate.

Lèse-majesté

lèse majestélese-majestylese majesty
Another clear symptom of the upgrading of the imperial status was the notion of the emperor as an incarnation of the majesty of Rome; thus lèse majesté became high treason.
In the Dominate, or Late Empire period, the emperors eliminated the Republican trappings of their predecessors and began to identify the state with their person.

Autocracy

autocraticautocratabsolutism
In the Eastern half of the Empire, and especially from the time of Justinian I, the system of the Dominate evolved into autocratic absolutism.

Despotism

despotdespoticdespots
The Dominate or late Roman Empire is the name sometimes given to the "despotic" later phase of imperial government, following the earlier period known as the "Principate", in the ancient Roman Empire.

Tetrarchy

tetrarchTetrarchstetrarchic
This phase is more often called the Tetrarchy at least until 313 when the empire was reunited.

Diocletian

Emperor DiocletianDiocletian ReformsDiocletianus
It may begin with the commencement of the reign of Diocletian in AD 284, following the Third Century Crisis of AD 235–284, and to end in the west with the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476, while in the east its end is disputed, as either occurring at the close of the reign of Justinian I (AD 565) or of Heraclius (AD 641).

Crisis of the Third Century

Crisis of the 3rd CenturyThird Century CrisisCrisis
It was during the Crisis of the Third Century that the traditional imperial approach of a single imperial magistrate based at Rome became unable to cope with multiple and simultaneous invasions and usurpations that required the emperor to be everywhere at once. It may begin with the commencement of the reign of Diocletian in AD 284, following the Third Century Crisis of AD 235–284, and to end in the west with the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476, while in the east its end is disputed, as either occurring at the close of the reign of Justinian I (AD 565) or of Heraclius (AD 641).

Western Roman Empire

Western EmpireWesternWest
It may begin with the commencement of the reign of Diocletian in AD 284, following the Third Century Crisis of AD 235–284, and to end in the west with the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476, while in the east its end is disputed, as either occurring at the close of the reign of Justinian I (AD 565) or of Heraclius (AD 641).

Byzantine Empire

ByzantineEastern Roman EmpireByzantines
It may begin with the commencement of the reign of Diocletian in AD 284, following the Third Century Crisis of AD 235–284, and to end in the west with the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476, while in the east its end is disputed, as either occurring at the close of the reign of Justinian I (AD 565) or of Heraclius (AD 641).

Justinian I

JustinianEmperor JustinianJustinian the Great
In the Eastern half of the Empire, and especially from the time of Justinian I, the system of the Dominate evolved into autocratic absolutism. It may begin with the commencement of the reign of Diocletian in AD 284, following the Third Century Crisis of AD 235–284, and to end in the west with the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476, while in the east its end is disputed, as either occurring at the close of the reign of Justinian I (AD 565) or of Heraclius (AD 641).

Heraclius

Emperor HeracliusHeraclius IHeraclius the Younger
It may begin with the commencement of the reign of Diocletian in AD 284, following the Third Century Crisis of AD 235–284, and to end in the west with the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476, while in the east its end is disputed, as either occurring at the close of the reign of Justinian I (AD 565) or of Heraclius (AD 641).

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
The modern term dominate is derived from the Latin dominus, which translates into English as lord or master. Dominus, traditionally used by Roman slaves to address their masters, was sporadically used in addressing emperors throughout the Principate, usually in the form of excessive flattery (or political invective) when referring to the emperor.

Lord

lordshipseigneurseigneurs
The modern term dominate is derived from the Latin dominus, which translates into English as lord or master. Dominus, traditionally used by Roman slaves to address their masters, was sporadically used in addressing emperors throughout the Principate, usually in the form of excessive flattery (or political invective) when referring to the emperor.