Official portrait, 2017
Kim in April 2019
Putin in 2021
The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
Trump at the New York Military Academy in 1964
The Liebefeld-Steinhölzli public school in Köniz, Switzerland, reportedly attended by Kim Jong-un
Five-year-old Vladimir Putin with his mother, Maria, in July 1958
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
Trump (far right) and wife Ivana in the receiving line of a state dinner for King Fahd of Saudi Arabia in 1985, with U.S. president Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan
"Kim Jong-un" in Chosŏn'gŭl (top) and hancha (bottom) scripts
Putin in the KGB, c. undefined 1980
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
Trump Tower in Midtown Manhattan
People paying homage to the statues of Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il, April 2012
Putin's Stasi "Ausweis" (identification card). He was assigned as a KGB agent in Dresden, as a mid-level liaison to the "Stasi" (East German intelligence agency) in 1985. He held a job as a translator as a "cover" for his KGB work.
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
Entrance of the Trump Taj Mahal in Atlantic City
Portraits of Kim Jong-un's father and grandfather (Arirang Festival mass games in Pyongyang)
Putin, Lyudmila Narusova and Ksenia Sobchak at the funeral of Putin's former mentor Anatoly Sobchak, Mayor of Saint Petersburg (1991–1996)
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
Trump and New Jersey Generals quarterback Doug Flutie at a 1985 press conference in the lobby of Trump Tower
North Korean soldiers saluting at the Revolutionary Martyrs' Cemetery in Pyongyang, 2012
Putin as FSB director, 1998
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
Trump's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
A selection of Kim Jong-un's works, translated to different languages
Putin with President Boris Yeltsin on 31 December 1999, when Yeltsin announced his resignation
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
Trump at a New York Mets baseball game in 2009
People in Pyongyang watch Kim Jong-un on North Korean TV, 2015
Vladimir Putin as acting president on 31 December 1999
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
Trump and President Bill Clinton in June 2000
Model of a Unha-9 rocket on display at a floral exhibition in Pyongyang, 30 August 2013
Putin taking the presidential oath beside Boris Yeltsin, May 2000
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "" to determine the IPV4 Address
Trump speaking at CPAC 2011
Kim and South Korean President Moon Jae-in shake hands during the 2018 inter-Korean Summit, April 2018
Putin with Tom Brokaw before an interview on 2 June 2000
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
Trump campaigning in Arizona, March 2016.
Kim and U.S. President Donald Trump shake hands at the start of the 2018 North Korea–United States Summit, June 2018
Putin with Junichiro Koizumi, Jacques Chirac, Gerhard Schröder, George W. Bush and other state leaders in Moscow during the Victory Day parade, 9 May 2005.
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
2016 electoral vote results. Trump won 304–227
Kim meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin during the North Korea–Russia Summit, April 2019
Putin, Bill Clinton, George H. W. Bush and Lyudmila Putina at the state funeral of Boris Yeltsin in Moscow, April 2007
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
Women's March in Washington on January 21, 2017
Kim (holding envelope) with Chung Eui-yong. Kim's sister Kim Yo-jong (on the right) is said to be very close to him
Putin with Dmitry Medvedev, March 2008
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
Trump is sworn in as president by Chief Justice John Roberts
Nikolai Patrushev is believed to be one of the closest advisors to Putin
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Trump speaks to automobile workers in Michigan, March 2017
Putin at a bilateral meeting with U.S. president Barack Obama during the G8 summit in Ireland, 17 June 2013
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Trump and group of officials and advisors on the way from White House complex to St. John's Church
Putin in talks with Ukrainian president Petro Poroshenko, German chancellor Angela Merkel and French president François Hollande, 17 October 2014
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Trump examines border wall prototypes in Otay Mesa, California.
Putin meets with U.S. president Barack Obama in New York City to discuss Syria and ISIL, 29 September 2015
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Trump with the other G7 leaders at the 45th summit in France, 2019
Putin and the newly appointed Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin meeting with members of Mishustin's Cabinet, 21 January 2020
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Trump and Xi Jinping at 2018 G20 Summit.
Putin (dressed in the yellow hazmat suit) visits coronavirus patients at a Moscow hospital, 24 March 2020
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
Trump, King Salman of Saudi Arabia, and Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi at the 2017 Riyadh summit in Saudi Arabia
Putin's first deputy chief of staff Sergey Kiriyenko (left) is in charge of Russia's domestic politics.
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=||access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>
U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo meeting with Taliban delegation in Qatar in September 2020
Putin holds a video call with U.S. president Joe Biden on 7 December 2021
Trump meets Kim Jong-un at the Singapore summit, June 2018
Putin visited China and met with Chinese leader Xi Jinping on 4 February 2022. China had allegedly requested that Russia delay the invasion until after the completion of the Beijing Winter Olympics.
Putin and Trump shaking hands at the G20 Osaka summit, June 2019
Pakistan's Prime Minister Imran Khan met with Putin in Moscow just hours after Russia's invasion of Ukraine began.
Trump and his third Supreme Court nominee, Amy Coney Barrett.
Protest against the Russian invasion of Ukraine in Nice, France, 27 February 2022
Trump conducts a COVID-19 press briefing with members of the White House Coronavirus Task Force on March 15, 2020
Putin hosted a meeting of the Russian-led military alliance, the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), in Moscow, Russia, 16 May 2022
Poland's president Andrzej Duda visited the White House on June 24, 2020, the first foreign leader to do so since the start of the pandemic.
In May 2000, Putin introduced seven federal districts for administrative purposes. In January 2010, the 8th North Caucasus Federal District (shown here in purple) was split from the Southern Federal District. In March 2014, the new 9th Crimean Federal District was formed after the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. In July 2016, it was incorporated into the Southern Federal District.
Trump boards helicopter for COVID-19 treatment on October 2, 2020
Russian GDP since the end of the Soviet Union (beyond 2014 are forecasts)
Trump discharged on October 5, 2020, from Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
Putin with religious leaders of Russia, February 2001
Members of House of Representatives vote on two articles of impeachment, December 18, 2019
Putin with Russia's long-serving minister of defense, Army General Sergey Shoygu, in the Eastern Military District, 2013
Trump displaying the front page of The Washington Post reporting his acquittal by the Senate
Russian opposition protest in Moscow, 26 February 2017
Trump at a 2020 campaign rally in Arizona
Putin attends the Orthodox Christmas service in the village Turginovo in Kalininsky District, Tver Oblast, 7 January 2016
2020 Electoral College results, Trump lost 232–306
Putin's visit to the United States, November 2001
Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi signing the second impeachment of Trump
Putin with Indian prime minister Modi in New Delhi
Trump speaks at the "Rally to Protect Our Elections" in Phoenix, Arizona, July 2021.
Putin with Xi Jinping during a state visit to Moscow, May 2015
Trump talking to the press, March 2017
Putin and Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow, President of Turkmenistan, in October 2017
Fact-checkers from The Washington Post, the Toronto Star, and CNN compiled data on "false or misleading claims" (orange background), and "false claims" (violet foreground), respectively.
Ukrainian president Zelenskyy, German chancellor Merkel, French president Macron and Putin met in Paris on 9 December 2019 in the "Normandy Format" aimed at ending the War in Donbass.
Putin with Pope John Paul II and Holy See's Secretary of State Angelo Sodano on 5 June 2000.
Putin with Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi and U.S. president George W. Bush at the NATO-Russia Council meeting in Rome on 28 May 2002.
Putin with U.S. president Donald Trump at the summit meeting in Helsinki, Finland, 16 July 2018
Putin held a meeting in Sochi with German chancellor Angela Merkel to discuss Nord Stream 2 natural gas pipeline in May 2018
According to Putin, he and Russia have a particularly good relationship to neighboring country Finland. Picture of Putin handshaking with Sauli Niinistö, the president of Finland, in August 2019.
Putin and his wife Lyudmila meeting with Queen Elizabeth II, her husband Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and Prime Minister Tony Blair in 2005
Putin and Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro on 22 May 2015
Brazilian president Jair Bolsonaro and Putin in Moscow, on 16 February 2022, few days before the war in Ukraine. The meeting was urgently scheduled by Putin to discuss and detail important points about the two countries and the world. Brazil and Russia are members of BRICS
Putin with Iranian president Hassan Rouhani and Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, September 2018
Putin opens the Wall of Grief, a monument to victims of Stalinist repression, October 2017
Vladimir Putin's public approval 1999–2020 (Levada, 2020)
The Levada Center survey showed that 58% of surveyed Russians supported the 2017 Russian protests against high-level corruption.
Putin driving a Formula One car, 2010 ([[:File:Vladimir Putin driving a Formula 1.ogv|video]])
Putin and Lyudmila Putina at their wedding, 28 July 1983
Putin's close associate Arkady Rotenberg is mentioned in the Panama Papers, pictured 2018
Putin receives Barack Obama at his residence in Novo-Ogaryovo, 2009
Putin and wife Lyudmila in New York at a service for victims of the 11 September attacks, 16 November 2001
Normandy Format talks in October 2016 where Lavrov is the right-hand man of Putin while to his left is Vladislav Surkov; Frank-Walter Steinmeier, Angela Merkel and Petro Poroshenko are identifiable participants to this round table of twelve
Putin with the chairman of the African Union and Senegalese President Macky Sall in Sochi, Russia, 3 June 2022

Global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices.

- Internet

In 2018 and 2019, Kim took part in summits with South Korean President Moon Jae-in and US President Donald Trump.

- Kim Jong-un

Trump met with North Korean leader Kim Jong-un three times, but made no progress on denuclearization.

- Donald Trump

On 25 April 2019, Kim held his first summit with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Vladivostok, Russia.

- Kim Jong-un

In January 2017, a U.S. intelligence community assessment expressed high confidence that Putin personally ordered an influence campaign, initially to denigrate Hillary Clinton and to harm her electoral chances and potential presidency, then later developing "a clear preference" for Donald Trump.

- Vladimir Putin

Trump repeatedly praised and rarely criticized Russian president Vladimir Putin, but opposed some actions of the Russian government.

- Donald Trump

500 related topics



Typical low-cost webcam used with many personal computers (2007)
Higher cost webcam (2017) with 1080p resolution and built-in stereo microphones
Components of any webcam are: Image sensor, lens and supporting circuitry.
The Trojan Room coffee pot, as displayed in XCoffee
SGI IndyCam
Model in front of webcam.

A webcam is a video camera that feeds or streams an image or video in real time to or through a computer network, such as the Internet.

Federal Bureau of Investigation

Domestic intelligence and security service of the United States and its principal federal law enforcement agency.

J. Edgar Hoover, FBI director from 1924 to 1972
The "suicide letter", mailed anonymously to King by the FBI
An FBI surveillance photograph of Joseph D. Pistone (aka Donnie Brasco), Benjamin "Lefty" Ruggiero and Edgar Robb (aka Tony Rossi), 1980s
FBI SWAT agents in a training exercise
An FBI agent tags the cockpit voice recorder from EgyptAir Flight 990 on the deck of the USS Grapple (ARS 53) at the crash site on November 13, 1999.
September 11 attacks at the Pentagon
FBI field divisions map
Organization chart for the FBI as of July 15, 2014
An FBI agent at a crime scene
FBI badge and service pistol, a Glock Model 22, .40 S&W caliber
FBI Director James Comey visiting the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation in North Dakota in June 2016.
The J. Edgar Hoover Building, FBI Headquarters
FBI Mobile Command Center, Washington Field Office
The FBI Academy, located in Quantico, Virginia
The FBI Field Office in Chelsea, Massachusetts
An FBI Evidence Response Team
Agents in training on the FBI Academy firing range
A Glock 22 pistol in .40 S&W caliber
Publication following the 2021 United States Capitol attack
The popular TV series The X-Files depicts the fictional FBI Special Agents Dana Scully (Gillian Anderson) and Fox Mulder (David Duchovny) who investigate paranormal phenomena.

Computer Investigations and Infrastructure Threat Assessment Center (CITAC) and the National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC) were created to deal with the increase in Internet-related problems, such as computer viruses, worms, and other malicious programs that threatened U.S. operations.

The current FBI director is Christopher A. Wray appointed by President Donald Trump.

Saudi Arabia

Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

Anthropomorphic stela (4th millennium BC), sandstone, 57x27 cm, from El-Maakir-Qaryat al-Kaafa (National Museum of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh)
The "Worshipping Servant" statue (2500 BC), above 1 m in height, is much taller than any possible Mesopotamian or Harappan models. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Korea.
Qaṣr Al-Farīd, the largest of the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs built from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD, with their elaborately ornamented façades, at the extensive ancient Nabatean archaeological site of Hegra located in the area of Al-'Ula within Al Madinah Region in the Hejaz. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.
Colossal statue from Al-'Ula in the Hejaz (6th–4th century BC), it followed the standardized artistic sculpting of the Lihyanite kingdom, the original statue was painted with white
At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) covered 11100000 km2 and 62 million people (29 per cent of the world's population), making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. It was also larger than any previous empire in history.
The Battle of Badr, 13 March 624 CE
Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, the founding father and first king of Saudi Arabia
Political map of Saudi Arabia
Map of Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways
Map of oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
King Fahd with US President Ronald Reagan and future US President Donald Trump in 1985. The US and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan.
As many as 500 princes, government ministers, and business people, including Prince Fahd bin Abdullah, were arrested by Saudi Arabian authorities as part of the 2017 Saudi Arabian purge
Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh with Bogdan Borusewicz in the Polish Senate, 26 May 2014
Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document.
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah Al Sisi, 21 May 2017
U.S. President Barack Obama meets King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, July 2014
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after a Saudi king. The kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan. WikiLeaks claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs".
Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir with then British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson (now Prime Minister) in London, 16 October 2016
Major Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations
Flag of Al-Qaeda, a transnational terrorist group formed by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian national of Yemeni and Syrian extraction who was stripped of his Saudi passport in 1994.
"The Saudi pilots training in Italy 1935"—a scene from 'Our Eagles', one of four video wall shows made for the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum
Saudi soldiers from the First Airborne Brigade.
Deera Square, central Riyadh. It is a former site of public be-headings.
Saudi Arabia topography
Harrat Khaybar seen from the International Space Station. Saudi Arabia is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of harrat (the singular is harrah), form one of Earth's largest alkali basalt regions, covering some 180000 km2, an area greater than the state of Missouri.
A proportional representation of Saudi Arabia exports, 2019
Office of Saudi Aramco, the world's most valuable company and the main source of revenue for the state
The hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims.
King Abdullah Financial Center is one of the largest investment centres in the Middle East, located in Riyadh
Al-Hasa is known for its palm trees and dates. Al-Hasa has over 30 million palm trees which produce over 100 thousand tons of dates every year.
Saudi Arabia population density (people per km2)
Laboratory buildings at KAUST
The Al-Yamamah Private University in Riyadh
UIS literacy rate Saudi Arabia population, 15 plus, 1990–2015
Historical development of life expectancy in Saudi Arabia
Supplicating pilgrim at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. The Kaaba is the cubic building in front of the pilgrim.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Sarah Attar is a track and field athlete who competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the first two female Olympians representing Saudi Arabia.
The Masjid al-Haram is the holiest Islamic site, located in Mecca
The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina containing the tomb of Muhammad
King Abdullah practising falconry, a traditional pursuit in the country
Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine
Uruguay – Saudi Arabia match at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
The 3000-year-old ancient historical city of Dumat al-Jandal in Al Jawf Province
The old city of Jeddah
Jabal Sawda ({{convert|3000|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}) located in the 'Asir subrange of the Sarat Mountains
Abha City, located {{convert|2270|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level in the 'Asir Region
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province
The desert of Al-Rub' Al-Khali (The Empty Quarter)
Saad Khader from left and right Mohammad Al-Ali in 1979

On 20 May 2017, President Donald Trump and King Salman signed a series of letters of intent for Saudi Arabia to purchase arms from the United States totalling US$110 billion immediately and $350 billion over 10 years.

Saudi Arabia received access to the Internet in 1994.

Media freedom in Russia

Press freedom 2022.svg

Copy of a newspaper (El Universo), an example of mass media.

Media of Russia include television and radio channels, periodicals, and Internet media, which according to the laws of the Russian Federation may be either state or private property.

The death of Politkovskaya triggered an outcry of criticism of Russia in the Western media, with accusations that, at best, Vladimir Putin has failed to protect the country's new independent media.

Russian gay propaganda law

Yelena Mizulina, author of the law
Activists painted the pedestrian pavement in front of the Russian Embassy in Finland with rainbow colours to protest Russian's anti-LGBT sentiment and legislation
Same-sex intercourse illegal:

The Russian federal law "for the Purpose of Protecting Children from Information Advocating for a Denial of Traditional Family Values," also referred to in English-language media as the gay propaganda law and the anti-gay law, is a bill that was unanimously approved by the State Duma on 11 June 2013 (with just one MP abstaining—Ilya Ponomarev), and was signed into law by President Vladimir Putin on 30 June 2013.

An amendment to the law passed in 2012 instituted a mandatory content rating system for material distributed through an "information and telecommunication network" (covering television and the internet), and established a blacklist for censoring websites which contain child pornography or content glorifying drug abuse and suicide.

Viral marketing

Business strategy that uses existing social networks to promote a product mainly on various social media platforms.

Martinus Beijerinck in his laboratory in 1921

It can be delivered by word of mouth, or enhanced by the network effects of the Internet and mobile networks.

In mid 2016, an Indian tea company (TE-A-ME) has delivered 6,000 tea bags to Donald Trump and launched a video on YouTube.


Doxing or doxxing is the act of publicly revealing previously private personal information about an individual or organization, usually via the Internet.

In 2016, Fox Business news anchor Lou Dobbs revealed the address and phone number of Jessica Leeds, one of the women who accused American presidential candidate Donald Trump of inappropriate sexual advances; Dobbs later apologized.


American online social media and social networking service owned by Meta Platforms.

Original layout and name of Thefacebook in 2004, showing Al Pacino's face superimposed with binary numbers as Facebook's original logo, designed by co-founder Andrew McCollum
Mark Zuckerberg's profile (viewed when logged out)
Mark Zuckerberg, co-creator of Facebook, in his Harvard dorm room, 2005
Billboard on the Thomson Reuters building welcomes Facebook to NASDAQ, May 2012
Oculus VR headset
Aerial view of Meta HQ in Menlo Park, California
Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg and Facebook executives with President Donald Trump in September 2019
Profile shown on Thefacebook in 2005
Previous Facebook logo in use from August 23, 2005, until July 1, 2015
Facebook login/signup screen
Human billboard advertising Facebook Canberra in the City page at the National Multicultural Festival
A Facebook "White Hat" debit card, given to researchers who report security bugs.
Map showing the countries that are either currently blocking or have blocked Facebook in the past
Facebook acquired Onavo's virtual private network to harvest usage data on its competitors.
Graffiti in Berlin of Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg. The caption is a reference to George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four.
Facebook on the ad:tech 2010
A man during the 2011 Egyptian protests carrying a card saying "Facebook,#jan25, The Egyptian Social Network"
Facebook parade float in San Francisco Pride 2014
Population pyramid of Facebook users by age {{as of|2010}}<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=December Data on Facebook's US Growth by Age and Gender: Beyond 100 Million – Inside Facebook|work=Inside Facebook|access-date=October 7, 2014}}</ref>

Facebook can be accessed from devices with Internet connectivity, such as personal computers, tablets and smartphones.

Sanctions against North Korea

A number of countries and international bodies have imposed sanctions against North Korea.

A North Korea cargo ship at the dock in Nampo

In October 2017 Russian President Vladimir Putin signed Presidential decree (ukaz) No. 484 "On measures to implement UN Security Council resolution 2321 of November 30, 2016" imposing sanctions on North Korea in connection with the adoption of UN Security Council resolution 2321 of 30 November 2016.

On 21 September 2017, President Donald Trump issued Executive Order 13810 allowing the United States to cut from its financial system or freeze assets of any companies, businesses, organizations, and individuals trading in goods, services, or technology with North Korea.

On the other hand, Sung-Yoon Lee, Professor in Korean Studies at the Fletcher School, and Joshua Stanton advocate continued tightening of sanctions and targeting Pyongyang's systemic vulnerabilities, such as blocking the regime's "offshore hard currency reserves and income with financial sanctions, including secondary sanctions against its foreign enablers. This would significantly diminish, if not altogether deny, Kim the means to pay his military, security forces and elites that repress the North Korean public."

2019 North Korea–United States Hanoi Summit

President Donald Trump and Chairman Kim Jong-un shaking hands at the start of the summit
President Donald Trump and Chairman Kim Jong-un shaking hands at the start of the summit
US, North Korea and Vietnam flags on Nguyễn Chí Thanh street.
United States Secretary of State Mike Pompeo with North Korea's Chairman Kim Jong-un in Pyongyang.
Kim Jong-un stayed in Melia Hanoi Hotel during the summit
The Presidential Palace in Hanoi; the second Trump-Kim summit location was confirmed to take place in Hanoi, Vietnam
The French Colonial Hôtel Métropole was chosen as the summit venue
President Donald Trump and General Secretary Nguyễn Phú Trọng, February 27, 2019
U.S. President Donald Trump and North Korean Chairman Kim Jong-un Jong-un having dinner, along with their delegation
President Donald Trump and Secretary Mike Pompeo at the press conference after the summit

The 2019 North Korea–United States Hanoi Summit, commonly known as the Hanoi Summit, was a two-day summit meeting between North Korean supreme leader Kim Jong-un and U.S. president Donald Trump, held at the French Colonial Hôtel Métropole in Hanoi, Vietnam, during February 27–28, 2019.

A meeting between Kim Jong-Un and Russian president Vladimir Putin was held on 25–26 April 2019.