Donatello

David at the Bargello, in Florence
Statue of St. John the Baptist in the Duomo di Siena
In 1409–1411 he executed the colossal seated figure of Saint John the Evangelist.
Donatello's David head and shoulders front right
St. George, Orsanmichele, Florence
marble pulpit
Equestrian Monument of Gattamelata (1445–1450), Padua
Bust of Niccolo da Uzzano, painted terracotta, 1430s, Bargello.
Penitent Magdalene, wood, c. 1455, Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Florence.
Saint John the Evangelist (1408-1415), which until 1588 occupied a niche of the old Florence Cathedral façade, now at the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo.
Madonna and Child, painted terracotta, Louvre

Florentine sculptor of the Renaissance period.

- Donatello
David at the Bargello, in Florence

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Filippo Brunelleschi in an anonymous portrait of the 2nd half of the 15th century (Louvre, Paris)

Filippo Brunelleschi

Italian architect, designer, and sculptor, and is now recognized to be the first modern engineer, planner, and sole construction supervisor.

Italian architect, designer, and sculptor, and is now recognized to be the first modern engineer, planner, and sole construction supervisor.

Filippo Brunelleschi in an anonymous portrait of the 2nd half of the 15th century (Louvre, Paris)
The Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral in Florence possesses the largest brick dome in the world, and is considered a masterpiece of European architecture.
Brunelleschi's original design of the Foundling Hospital. Digital reconstruction by Adriano Marinazzo.
Brunelleschi designed the Rocca di Vicopisano
Brunelleschi's tomb
St. John the Evangelist, Altar of Saint at Church of San Zeno, Pistoia (1399–1400)
Prophet Jeremiah detail of altarpiece, Church of San Zeno, Pistoia (1399–1400)
The Prophet Isaiah, Church of San Zeno, Pistoia detail of altarpiece (1399–1400)
The Sacrifice of Isaac, Brunelleschi's competition project for a door panel of the Baptistry of Florence (1401)
Cloister of Men of the Foundling Hospital (1419–1445)
Arcade of the Foundling Hospital (1419–1445)
Corinthian column in the cloister
Nave of the Basilica of San Lorenzo (1425–1442)
View of the Old Sacristy
Vault of the Old Sacristy (Sagrestia vecchia), with the tomb of Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici
Doorway inside the Old Sacristy with a classical pediment and columns, framed by pilasters
Sky of Florence decoration by Giuliano d'Arrigo on the small dome in the Old Sacristy (1442)
Central nave of Santo Spirito
The dome of Santo Spirito
Brunelleschi's plan of Santo Spirito
Detail of the classical pilasters of the Sacristy
Facade of the Pazzi Chapel
Plan of the Pazzi Chapel
Dome of the Pazzi Chapel
Interior of the Pazzi Chapel with sculptural plaques by Luca Della Robbia
1450 Codex Rustici drawing showing Brunelleschi's proposed octagonal church (lower right)
Plan of the rotunda of Santa Maria degli Angeli
Brunelleschi's rotunda from Santa Maria degli Angeli. Only the lower wall remains of his original design.
Michelangelo's plan for Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome (1546), superimposed on the earlier plan by Bramante
Plan of the dome, showing the inner and outer domes
Interior structure of the dome
Dome seen from the bell tower
Stairway between the inner and outer domes
The lantern of the dome
The dome viewed from below
Exedra below the main dome
The Holy Trinity by Masaccio (1425–1427) used Brunelleschi's system of perspective
Diagram of Brunelleschi's experiment in perspective
The Delivery of the Keys fresco, 1481–1482, Sistine Chapel, by Perugino (1481–1482), features both linear perspective and Brunelleschi's architectural style

In this period (1402–1404), Brunelleschi visited Rome (possibly with his friend, the sculptor Donatello) to study its ancient ruins.

Lorenzo Ghiberti on Gates of Paradise modern copy Florence Baptistery

Lorenzo Ghiberti

Italian Renaissance sculptor from Florence, a key figure in the Early Renaissance, best known as the creator of two sets of bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery, the later one called by Michelangelo the Gates of Paradise.

Italian Renaissance sculptor from Florence, a key figure in the Early Renaissance, best known as the creator of two sets of bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery, the later one called by Michelangelo the Gates of Paradise.

Lorenzo Ghiberti on Gates of Paradise modern copy Florence Baptistery
140px
Angled view of a panel with the story of Abraham from the Florence Gates of Paradise (see above)
In Flagellation, one of the panels on the North Doors
The story of Joseph, a panel from the second set of doors to the Baptistery
The Sacrifice of Isaac, Brunelleschi's competition project for a door panel of the Baptistry of Florence (1401)
The Sacrifice of Isaac,Ghiberti's winning piece for the 1401 competition
Gates of Paradise, Baptistery, Florence, the doors in situ are reproductions
Tomb of Ghiberti in the Basilica of Santa Croce in Florence

To carry out this commission, he set up a large workshop in which many artists trained, including Donatello, Masolino, Michelozzo, Paolo Uccello, and Antonio del Pollaiuolo.

Portrait of Verrocchio by Nicolas de Larmessin

Andrea del Verrocchio

Sculptor, Italian painter and goldsmith who was a master of an important workshop in Florence.

Sculptor, Italian painter and goldsmith who was a master of an important workshop in Florence.

Portrait of Verrocchio by Nicolas de Larmessin
Madonna with seated Child (Gemäldegalerie, Berlin)
Tobias and the Angel (National Gallery, London).
Baptism of Christ
Christ and St Thomas
David
Giuliano de' Medici, c. 1475–1478, National Gallery of Art
Statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni, Verrocchio, cast by Leopardi

It has been suggested that he was later apprenticed to Donatello, but there is no evidence of this and John Pope-Hennessy considered that it is contradicted by the style of his early works.

Side view of Lorenzo Ghiberti's cast gilt-bronze Gates of Paradise at the Florence Baptistery in Florence, Italy, combining high-relief main figures with backgrounds mostly in low relief

Relief

The term relief refers to a sculptural method in which the sculpted pieces are bonded to a solid background of the same material.

The term relief refers to a sculptural method in which the sculpted pieces are bonded to a solid background of the same material.

Side view of Lorenzo Ghiberti's cast gilt-bronze Gates of Paradise at the Florence Baptistery in Florence, Italy, combining high-relief main figures with backgrounds mostly in low relief
A face of the high-relief Frieze of Parnassus round the base of the Albert Memorial in London. Most of the heads and many feet are completely undercut, but the torsos are "engaged" with the surface behind
A common mixture of high and low relief, in the Roman Ara Pacis, placed to be seen from below. Low relief ornament at bottom
Low-relief on Roman sestertius, 238 AD
A low-relief dating to circa 2000 BC, from the kingdom of Simurrum, modern Iraq
Low relief, Banteay Srei, Cambodia; Ravana shaking Mount Kailasa, the Abode of Siva
High relief metope from the Classical Greek Parthenon Marbles. Some front limbs are actually detached from the background completely, while the centaur's left rear leg is in low relief.
High-relief deities at Khajuraho, India
A sunk-relief depiction of Pharaoh Akhenaten with his wife Nefertiti and daughters. The main background has not been removed, merely that in the immediate vicinity of the sculpted form. Note how strong shadows are needed to define the image.
French Gothic diptych, 25 cm (9.8 in) high, with crowded scenes from the Life of Christ, c. 1350–1365
"Blocked-out" unfinished low relief of Ahkenaten and Nefertiti; unfinished Greek and Persian high-reliefs show the same method of beginning a work.
Persian low or bas-relief in Persepolis – a symbol of Zoroastrian Nowruz – at the spring equinox the power of the bull (personifying Earth) and lion (personifying the Sun) are equal.
Assyrian low relief, Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal, North Palace, Nineveh
Atropos cutting the thread of life. Ancient Greek low relief
Donatello, Madonna and Child in rilievo stiacciato or shallow relief
French 20th-century low relief
Low relief from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic archaeological site of Göbekli Tepe, believed to represent a bull, a fox, and a crane, c. 9,000 BC
The Warka Vase of Sumer, a very early survival works of narrative relief, c. 3200–3000 BC. Alabaster. National Museum of Iraq.<ref name=gardner>{{cite book|first=Fred S.|last=Kleiner|author2=Mamiya, Christin J.|year=2006|title=Gardner's Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective – Volume 1|url=https://archive.org/details/gardnersartthrou00fred|url-access=registration|edition=12th|publisher=Thomson Wadsworth|location=Belmont, California, USA|isbn=0-495-00479-0|pages=20–21}}</ref>
Sunk relief as low relief within a sunk outline, from the Luxor Temple in Egypt, carved in very hard granite
low relief within a sunk outline, linear sunk relief in the hieroglyphs, and high relief (right), from Luxor
Low to mid-relief, 9th century, Borobudur. The temple has 1,460 panels of reliefs narrating Buddhist scriptures.
A Persian mid-relief (mezzo-rilievo) from the Qajar era, at Tangeh Savashi in Iran, which might also be described as two stages of low relief This is a rock relief carved into a cliff.
Roman funerary relief with frame at original level, but not sunk relief
The Roman Warren Cup, silver repoussé work
Yaxchilan Lintel 24, a Mayan carving depicting a blood sacrifice
Rock relief at Naqsh-e Rustam; the Persian Sassanian emperor Shapur I (on horseback) with Roman emperors submitting to him
The 12th century Romanesque portal of Christ in Majesty at Moissac Abbey moves between low and high relief in a single figure.
Harbaville Triptych, Byzantine ivory
Side view of mid-relief: Madonna and Child, marble of {{circa|1500}}/1510 by an unknown north Italian sculptor
The elaborate stucco (plaster) reliefs decorating the Chateau de Fontainebleau were hugely influential. Low-relief decorative frieze above
Baroque marble high-relief by Francesco Grassia, 1670, Rome
Robert Gould Shaw Memorial, 1897, Boston, combining free-standing elements with high and low relief
A relatively modern high relief (depicting shipbuilding) in Bishopsgate, London. Note that some elements jut out of the frame of the image.
Elizabeth Wyn Wood's Bas-relief at Ryerson University in Toronto
Colossal Hindu rock reliefs at Unakoti, Tripura, India
Paul Gauguin, Woman with Mango Fruits, 1889, painted oak, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Kopenhagen
Henry Moore, Relief No. 1, 1959, Bronze, at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem
Ewald Matare, main portal with bronze door, 1958–1960, St Lambertus, Düsseldorf

It is often used for the background areas of compositions with the main elements in low-relief, but its use over a whole (usually rather small) piece was perfected by the Italian Renaissance sculptor Donatello.

Florence Baptistery (Battistero di San Giovanni)

Florence Baptistery

Religious building in Florence, Italy, and has the status of a minor basilica.

Religious building in Florence, Italy, and has the status of a minor basilica.

Florence Baptistery (Battistero di San Giovanni)
Mosaic-covered interior of the octagonal dome
Illustration from Villani's Nuova Cronica, showing Totila razing the walls of Florence in the 6th century, leaving the Baptistery intact
Octagonal plan with a scarsella on the west
View of the exterior with the south doors visible on the left
South doors (detail) by Andrea Pisano
South doors (detail) by Andrea Pisano
North doors by Lorenzo Ghiberti
East doors, or Gates of Paradise, by Lorenzo Ghiberti
Mosaic ceiling
Plan of the mosaic ceiling : 1. Last Judgement. 2. Lantern. 3. Choirs of Angels. 4. Stories from the Book of Genesis. 5. Stories of Joseph. 6. Stories of Mary and Christ. 7. Stories of St. John the Baptist.
Composite image of all eight sides of the ceiling counter-clockwise from Christ.
Gates of Paradise, Self-portrait bust of artist
Gates of Paradise, The Story of Joseph
Gates of Paradise, The Story of Abraham
Gates of Paradise, The Story of Adam and Eve

The building contains the monumental tomb of Antipope John XXIII, by Donatello.

Donatello, the bronze David (1440s?), Bargwello Florence, h.158 cm

David (Donatello)

Donatello, the bronze David (1440s?), Bargwello Florence, h.158 cm
The first version of David (1408–1409). Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. Height 191 cm.
Another view
Back view of the legs of the David in the Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence.
Detail of the base
The first version of David (1408–1409). Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. Height 191 cm.

David is the title of two statues of the biblical hero David by the Italian Early Renaissance sculptor Donatello.

David (1504)
"What spirit is so empty and blind, that it cannot recognize the fact that the foot is more noble than the shoe, and skin more beautiful than the garment with which it is clothed?"
— Michelangelo

Nude (art)

Enduring tradition in Western art.

Enduring tradition in Western art.

David (1504)
"What spirit is so empty and blind, that it cannot recognize the fact that the foot is more noble than the shoe, and skin more beautiful than the garment with which it is clothed?"
— Michelangelo
Ariadne Asleep on the Island of Naxos (1808–1812) by John Vanderlyn. The painting was initially considered too sexual for display in the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. "Although nudity in art was publicly protested by Americans, Vanderlyn observed that they would pay to see pictures of which they disapproved."
The Venus of Willendorf (made between 24,000 and 22,000 BCE)
The Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli, c. 1484–1486
This year Venuses again... always Venuses!... (1864) by Daumier
Benefits Supervisor Sleeping (1995)
"I paint people, not because of what they are like, not exactly in spite of what they are like, but how they happen to be."
– Lucian Freud
A Nude Boy on a Beach (1878) by John Singer Sargent
Susanna and the Elders, 1610, Artemisia Gentileschi. This work may be compared with male depictions of the same tale.
The Barricade (1918), oil on canvas, by George Bellows. A painting inspired by an incident in August 1914 in which German soldiers used Belgian townspeople as human shields.
Crayon-style print by Gilles Demarteau with a nude man after original drawing by Edmé Bouchardon was acquired by Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw as a teaching material
David (1504)
"What spirit is so empty and blind, that it cannot recognize the fact that the foot is more noble than the shoe, and skin more beautiful than the garment with which it is clothed?"
— Michelangelo

Donatello made two statues of the Biblical hero David, a symbol for the Republic of Florence: his first (in marble, 1408–1409) shows a clothed figure, but his second, probably of the 1440s, is the first freestanding statue of a nude since antiquity, several decades before Michelangelo's massive David (1501–1504).

Santa Croce, Florence

Principal Franciscan church in Florence, Italy, and a minor basilica of the Roman Catholic Church.

Principal Franciscan church in Florence, Italy, and a minor basilica of the Roman Catholic Church.

The original brick west front (before the 1860s Gothic Revival embellishments by Niccolò Matas)
The altar and crucifix
A gate in the gardens with the letters "OPA" for ora pro animis ("pray for souls")
Giotto's Death of St. Francis (early 1320s) with overpainting removed
Michelangelo's tomb
Machiavelli's tomb
Galileo's tomb

Donatello (relief of the Annunciation on the south wall; crucifix in the lefthand Cappella Bardi; St Louis of Toulouse in the refectory, originally made for the Orsanmichele)

Fra Angelico's "Deposition"

Michelozzo

Italian architect and sculptor.

Italian architect and sculptor.

Fra Angelico's "Deposition"
The facade of Palazzo Medici in Florence.
The courtyard of Palazzo Medici Riccardi.
San Marco in Florence
Cloister of San Marco in Florence

He was a pupil of Lorenzo Ghiberti in his early years, and later collaborated with Donatello.

Brunelleschi's Dome, the nave, and Giotto's Campanile of the Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore as seen from Michelangelo Hill

Florence Cathedral

Cathedral of Florence, Italy (Duomo di Firenze).

Cathedral of Florence, Italy (Duomo di Firenze).

Brunelleschi's Dome, the nave, and Giotto's Campanile of the Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore as seen from Michelangelo Hill
The Duomo viewed from the heights of Piazzale Michelangelo
The Duomo, as if completed, in a fresco by Andrea di Bonaiuto, painted in the 1360s, before the commencement of the dome
The Duomo and Baptistery of St. John from Piazza del Duomo
Plan of the church with various extension phases
Dome seen from the Giotto's Campanile
Interior of the dome
Baptistery of St. John next to the cathedral
Exterior of the Cathedral
Cupola of the Dome
Model of the original medieval façade in the museum of the cathedral
Modern façade built in the 19th century
Façade of the cathedral
Main portal by Augusto Passaglia
Statue of Saint Reparata, to whom the previous cathedral was dedicated, in the main portal
Interior of the cathedral
Huge clock decorated by Paolo Uccello
Dante and the Divine Comedy
Trompe-l'œil of Niccolò da Tolentino.
The Last Judgement by Vasari and Zuccari (from directly underneath)
The Last Judgement by Vasari and Zuccari
Detail of The Last Judgement by Vasari and Zuccari
Tomb of Antonio d'Orso by Tino da Camaino
Tomb of Filippo Brunelleschi.
Donatello first version of David (1408–1409). Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. Height 191 cm.
Possible Statue of "Isaiah" by Nanni di Banco
Donatello's colossal seated figure of Saint John the Evangelist. 1409-1411
A Fiberglass replica of Michaelangelo's David statue [seen from the north]. This was the original placement planned for the statue.
Observation of the solstice on 21 June 2012

There are two side doors: the Doors of the Canonici (south side) and the Door of the Mandorla (north side) with sculptures by Nanni di Banco, Donatello, and Jacopo della Quercia.