A report on XiongnuInner Mongolia and Donghu people

Domain and influence of Xiongnu under Modu Chanyu around 205 BC
The Donghu were located to the northeast of Qin China in the 3rd century BCE.
Asia in 200 BC, showing the early Xiongnu state and its neighbors
Persian miniature depicting Genghis Khan entering Beijing
Lineage of the Donghu (Eastern Hu)
Plaque in the shape of a grazing kulan (wild ass), 2nd–1st century BC, Northwest China, Xiongnu culture.
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent
Donghu raided both Zhao and Yan in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC
A traveling nomad family led by a man in belted jacket and trousers, pulling a nomadic cart. Belt Buckle, Mongolia or southern Siberia, dated to 2nd-1st century BC (Xiongnu period).
Mongolia plateau during early 17th century
The Han dynasty world order in AD 2.
Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia within the Qing dynasty, c. 1820
Xiongnu among other people in Asia around 1 AD.
Mongols stand in front of a yurt, 1912
Bronze seal of a Xiongnu chief, conferred by the Eastern Han government. Inscribed 漢匈奴/歸義親/漢長 ("The Chief of the Han Xiongnu, who have returned to righteousness and embraced the Han"). Seal, impression, and transcription in standard characters.
Delegates of Inner Mongolia People's Congress shouting slogans
Belt hook depicting an animal fight, Xiongnu, 200-100 BC, bronze. Östasiatiska museet, Stockholm.
Inner Mongolian steppes
Southern and Northern Xiongnu in 200 AD, before the collapse of the Han Dynasty.
Topography of Inner Mongolia in China
Xiongnu cauldron, Eastern Han
Winter in Ulanbutan Grassland, Hexigten Banner
Location of Xiongnu and other steppe nations in 300 AD.
Theater in Hohhot
An embroidered rug from the Xiongnu Noin-Ula burial site. This luxury item was imported from Bactria, and is thought to represent Yuezhi figures.
Inner Mongolia Gymnasium
Belt plaque in the shape of a kneeling horse, 3rd-1st century BCE, gilded silver, made in North China for Xiongnu patrons.
Muslim-themed Street in Hohhot
Belt Buckle, 2nd-1st century BCE, Xiongnu. Another naturalistic belt buckle made to the Xiongnu taste, showing a mounted warrior frontally, holding a dagger and grabbing the hair of a demon who is also attacked by a dog. Also appears a nomadic cart pulled by reindeers, and another dog on top of the cart.
A KFC in Hohhot, the capital, with a bilingual street sign in Chinese and Mongolian
Xiongnu Leather Robe, Han period, Henan Provincial Museum, Zhengzhou
Inner Mongolian carpet c. 1870
Xiongnu bow
Temple of the White Sulde of Genghis Khan in the town of Uxin in Inner Mongolia, in the Mu Us Desert. The worship of Genghis is shared by Chinese and Mongolian folk religion.
Belt plaque with design of wrestling men, Ordos region and western part of North China, 2nd century BC, bronze - Ethnological Museum, Berlin.
Sign of the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
Belt buckle with three Ibexes, 2nd-1st century BC, Xiongnu. Chinese foundries made bronze belt plaques to the taste of the Xiongnu, who preferred designs of real animals in naturalistic settings. These plaques have typically been excavated in Xiongnu tombs of the 1st century BC.
Jade dragon of the Hongshan culture (4700 BC – 2900 BC) found in Ongniud, Chifeng
Belt buckle with animal combat scene, 2nd-1st century BCE, made in North China for the Xiongnu. These plates were inspired by the art of the steppes, but the design was flattened and compressed within the frame.
Ulaanbutan grassland
Belt Buckle with nomadic-inspired zoomorphic design, manufactured in China for the Xiongnu. Mercury-gilded bronze (a Chinese technique). North China, 3rd-2nd century BC.
Inner Mongolian grassland
2nd century BC – 2nd century AD characters of Xiongnu-Xianbei script (Mongolia and Inner Mongolia).{{sfn|Ishjamts|1996|p=166, Fig 5}}
Honorary tomb of Wang Zhaojun (born c. 50BC) in Hohhot
2nd century BC – 2nd century AD, characters of Xiongnu-Xianbei script (Mongolia and Inner Mongolia).{{sfn|Ishjamts|1996|p=166, Fig 5}}
Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Baoshan, Ar Horqin
"Pastoralist expansion into Mongolia ca. 3000 BCE, and by the Late Bronze Age, Mongolian populations were biogeographically structured into three distinct groups, all practicing dairy pastoralism regardless of ancestry. The Xiongnu emerged from the mixing of these populations and those from surrounding regions".
Khitan people cooking. Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Aohan
Remains of the city Khara-Khoto built in 1032. Located in Ejin Khoshuu, Alxa Aimag
Uniparental haplogroup assignments by group and sex-bias "z" scores of Xiongnu.
Maidari Juu temple fortress ({{zh|labels=no |c=美岱召 |p=měidài zhào}}) built by Altan Khan in 1575 near Baotou
Newly built arch in front of the Maidari Juu temple fortress (1575)
Da Zhao temple (also called Ikh Zuu) built by Altan Khan in 1579
Badekar Monastery (1749) near Baotou, Inner Mongolia. Called Badgar Zuu in Mongolian
Five Pagoda temple (1727) in Hohhot
Badain Jaran temple (1868) in western Inner Mongolia
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Alshaa mountain scenery
Alxa Western Monastery (Alshaa Baruun Hiid) built in 1756

Donghu (IPA: ; literally: "Eastern foreigners" or "Eastern barbarians") or Hu (IPA: ) was a tribal confederation of nomadic people that was first recorded from the 7th century BCE and was destroyed by the Xiongnu in 150 BCE.

- Donghu people

They lived in northern Hebei, southeastern Inner Mongolia and the western part of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang along the Yan Mountains and Greater Khingan Range.

- Donghu people

The Xiongnu were also active in areas now part of Siberia, Inner Mongolia, Gansu and Xinjiang.

- Xiongnu

Sima Qian also mentioned Xiongnu's early appearance north of Wild Goose Gate and Dai commanderies before 265 BCE, just before the Zhao-Xiongnu War; however, sinologist Edwin Pulleyblank (1994) contends that pre-241-BCE references to the Xiongnu are anachronistic substitutions for the Hu people instead.

- Xiongnu

Before the rise of the Mongols in the 13th century, what is now central and western Inner Mongolia, especially the Hetao region, alternated in control between Chinese agriculturalists in the south, and Xiongnu, Xianbei, Khitan, Jurchen, Tujue, and nomadic Mongol of the north.

- Inner Mongolia

During the Zhou dynasty, Central and Western Inner Mongolia (the Hetao region and surrounding areas) were inhabited by nomadic peoples such as the Loufan, Linhu and Dí, while Eastern Inner Mongolia was inhabited by the Donghu.

- Inner Mongolia
Domain and influence of Xiongnu under Modu Chanyu around 205 BC

2 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Painting depicting a Xianbei Murong archer in a tomb of the Former Yan (337–370).

Xianbei

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Painting depicting a Xianbei Murong archer in a tomb of the Former Yan (337–370).
The Xianbei state (1st–3rd century).
Figure of a Xianbei warrior from the Northern Dynasties (286–581 AD) era. The figure wear a covered "wind hat", trousers, short upper tunic and a cape tied around the neck, designed to protect against the wind and dust.
Xianbei musician, tomb of Sima Jinlong, 484 CE.
Northern dynasties horseman
Northern Wei cavalry
Northern Wei cavalry
Xianbei belt buckles, 3–4th century AD
Xianbei head ornament with horse motif
Northern Wei earrings
Painting of the Tuoba-Xianbei Northern Zhou general Li Xian (504-569 CE).
Female Xianbei figure

The Xianbei were a Proto-Mongolic ancient nomadic people that once resided in the eastern Eurasian steppes in what is today Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeastern China.

They originated from the Donghu people who splintered into the Wuhuan and Xianbei when they were defeated by the Xiongnu at the end of the third century BC. The Xianbei were largely subordinate to larger nomadic powers and the Han dynasty until they gained prominence in 87 AD by killing the Xiongnu chanyu Youliu.

Image of a Mongolian lady (incorrectly identified as Genepil, Queen consort of Mongolia )

Mongols

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Image of a Mongolian lady (incorrectly identified as Genepil, Queen consort of Mongolia )
Asia in 500, showing the Rouran Khaganate and its neighbors, including the Northern Wei and the Tuyuhun Khanate, all of them were established by Proto-Mongols
Mongol man with a hat, Yuan dynasty
Mongol wearing a hat, 14th c.
Yuan dynasty Mongol rider
A portrait of Kublai Khan by Araniko (1245–1306)
Mongol huntsmen, Ming dynasty
The Northern Yuan dynasty and Turco-Mongol residual states and domains by the 15th century
Map showing wars between Qing Dynasty and Dzungar Khanate
A Dzungar soldier called Ayusi from the high Qing era, by Giuseppe Castiglione, 1755
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1755 between the Qing (that ruled China at the time) and Mongol Dzungar armies. The fall of the Dzungar Khanate
Khorloogiin Choibalsan, leader of the Mongolian People's Republic (left), and Georgy Zhukov consult during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol against Japanese troops, 1939
World War II Zaisan Memorial, Ulaan Baatar, from the People's Republic of Mongolia era.
Mongolian President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj (right)
A Mongolic Ger
Chronological tree of the Mongolic languages
Buddhist temple in Buryatia, Russia
Timur of Mongolic origin himself had converted almost all the Borjigin leaders to Islam.
Mongols grazing livestock, by Roy Chapman Andrews photographs in 1921
Mural of a Mongol family, Yuan dynasty
The Mughal Emperor Babur and his heir Humayun. The word Mughal is derived from the Persian word for Mongol.
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire and location of today's Mongols in modern Mongolia, Russia and China.
Mongol women in traditional dress
Strong Mongol men at August games. Photo by Wm. Purdom, 1909
Mongol Empress Zayaat (Jiyatu), wife of Kulug Khan (1281–1311)
Genghis' son Tolui with Queen Sorgaqtani
Hulegu Khan, ruler of the Ilkhanate
13th century Ilkhanid Mongol archer
Mongol soldiers by Rashid al-Din, BnF. MS. Supplément Persan 1113. 1430-1434 AD.
Kalmyk Mongol girl Annushka (painted in 1767)
A 20th-century Mongol Khan, Navaanneren
The 4th Dalai Lama Yonten Gyatso
Dolgorsürengiin Dagvadorj became the first Mongol to reach sumo's highest rank.
Mongol women archers during Naadam festival
A Mongol musician
A Mongol Wrangler
Buryat Mongol shaman
Kalmyks, 19th century
Mongol girl performing Bayad dance
Buryat Mongols (painted in 1840)
Daur Mongol Empress Wanrong (1906–1946), also had Borjigin blood on maternal side.
Buryat Mongol boy during shamanic rite
Concubine Wenxiu was Puyi's consort
A Mongolian Buddhist monk, 1913

The Mongols (Монголчууд,, Moŋğolçuud, ; ; Монголы) are an East Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia, Inner Mongolia in China and the Buryatia Republic of the Russian Federation.

Based on Chinese historical texts the ancestry of the Mongolic peoples can be traced back to the Donghu, a nomadic confederation occupying eastern Mongolia and Manchuria.

The Donghu neighboured the Xiongnu, whose identity is still debated today.