Dopamine

dopaminergic systemDAdopaminergic4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diolDdopamine abnormalitiesdopamine agentsdopamine neuronsdopaminergic circuitsdopaminergic neurons
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families.wikipedia
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Dopaminergic

dopaminergic drugsdopaminergic neuronsDA
Dopaminergic stimulants can be addictive in high doses, but some are used at lower doses to treat ADHD.
Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.

Neurotransmitter

neurotransmittersexcitatory neurotransmitterneurotransmitter system
It functions both as a hormone and a neurotransmitter, and plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Major neurotransmitter systems include the noradrenaline (norepinephrine) system, the dopamine system, the serotonin system, and the cholinergic system, among others.

Dopaminergic cell groups

dopaminergic neurondopaminergic neuronsdopaminergic
These pathways and cell groups form a dopamine system which is neuromodulatory.
Dopaminergic cell groups are collections of neurons in the central nervous system that synthesize the neurotransmitter dopamine.

Parkinson's disease

ParkinsonParkinson’s diseaseParkinson disease
Parkinson's disease, a degenerative condition causing tremor and motor impairment, is caused by a loss of dopamine-secreting neurons in an area of the midbrain called the substantia nigra.
This results in not enough dopamine in this region of the brain.

Catecholamine

catecholaminescatecholamine synthesiscatecholamine systems
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families.
Included among catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and dopamine.

Dopamine antagonist

antidopaminergicDopamine receptor antagonistdopamine antagonists
There is evidence that schizophrenia involves altered levels of dopamine activity, and most antipsychotic drugs used to treat this are dopamine antagonists which reduce dopamine activity.
Several other dopamine antagonists are antiemetics used in the treatment of nausea and vomiting.

Sympathomimetic drug

sympathomimeticsympathomimeticssympathomimetic amine
Dopaminergic stimulants can be addictive in high doses, but some are used at lower doses to treat ADHD.
The primary endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system are the catecholamines (i.e., epinephrine [adrenaline], norepinephrine [noradrenaline], and dopamine), which function as both neurotransmitters and hormones.

Norepinephrine

noradrenalinenoradrenergicnoradrenalin
In blood vessels, it inhibits norepinephrine release and acts as a vasodilator (at normal concentrations); in the kidneys, it increases sodium excretion and urine output; in the pancreas, it reduces insulin production; in the digestive system, it reduces gastrointestinal motility and protects intestinal mucosa; and in the immune system, it reduces the activity of lymphocytes.
Thus the direct precursor of norepinephrine is dopamine, which is synthesized indirectly from the essential amino acid phenylalanine or the non-essential amino acid tyrosine.

Reuptake

re-uptakereabsorptionuptake
The anticipation of most types of rewards increases the level of dopamine in the brain, and many addictive drugs increase dopamine release or block its reuptake into neurons following release.
The members of this new family include transporters for dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, glycine, proline and GABA.

Adrenal medulla

medullamedullary(medulla)
Dopamine is synthesized in a restricted set of cell types, mainly neurons and cells in the medulla of the adrenal glands.
It is the innermost part of the adrenal gland, consisting of cells that secrete epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and a small amount of dopamine in response to stimulation by sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

Tyrosine hydroxylase

THtyrosine 3-monooxygenasetyrosine
L -Tyrosine is converted into L -DOPA by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, with tetrahydrobiopterin, O 2, and iron (Fe 2+ ) as cofactors.
L -DOPA is a precursor for dopamine, which, in turn, is a precursor for the important neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADHDattention deficit disorderhyperactivity
Restless legs syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with decreased dopamine activity.
Typically, a number of genes are involved, many of which directly affect dopamine neurotransmission.

Phenylalanine

PheL-phenylalaninephenylalanine metabolism
The direct precursor of dopamine, L -DOPA, can be synthesized indirectly from the essential amino acid phenylalanine or directly from the non-essential amino acid tyrosine.
Phenylalanine is a precursor for tyrosine, the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline), and the skin pigment melanin.

Tetrahydrobiopterin

BH4Sapropterinsapropterin dihydrochloride
L -Phenylalanine is converted into L -tyrosine by the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, with molecular oxygen (O 2 ) and tetrahydrobiopterin as cofactors.
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH 4, THB), also known as sapropterin, is a cofactor of the three aromatic amino acid hydroxylase enzymes, used in the degradation of amino acid phenylalanine and in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), melatonin, dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), epinephrine (adrenaline), and is a cofactor for the production of nitric oxide (NO) by the nitric oxide synthases.

Dopamine receptor

dopaminedopamine receptorsdopaminergic
In humans, dopamine has a high binding affinity at dopamine receptors and human trace amine-associated receptor 1 (hTAAR1).
The neurotransmitter dopamine is the primary endogenous ligand for dopamine receptors.

Restless legs syndrome

restless leg syndromerestless legsrestless legs syndrome (RLS)
Restless legs syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with decreased dopamine activity.
Both conditions appear to have links to dysfunctions related to the neurotransmitter dopamine, and common medications for both conditions among other systems, affect dopamine levels in the brain.

Monoamine oxidase A

MAO-AMAOAMAO A
This gene is one of two neighboring gene family members that encode mitochondrial enzymes which catalyze the oxidative deamination of amines, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.

Dopamine receptor D2

D 2 D 2 receptorDRD2
These can be postsynaptic dopamine receptors, which are located on dendrites (the postsynaptic neuron), or presynaptic autoreceptors (e.g., the D 2 sh and presynaptic D 3 receptors), which are located on the membrane of an axon terminal (the presynaptic neuron).
After work from Paul Greengard's lab had suggested that dopamine receptors were the site of action of antipsychotic drugs, several groups (including those of Solomon Snyder and Philip Seeman) used a radiolabeled antipsychotic drug to identify what is now known as the dopamine D 2 receptor.

Dopamine beta-hydroxylase

dopamine β-hydroxylaseDBHDopamine beta-monooxygenase
Dopamine is converted into norepinephrine by the enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase, with O 2 and L -ascorbic acid as cofactors.
The three substrates of this enzyme are Dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine), Vitamin C (ascorbate), and O 2, whereas its three products are noradrenaline, dehydroascorbate, and H 2 O.

Substituted phenethylamine

phenethylaminephenethylaminesphenethylamine class
The presence of a benzene ring with this amine attachment makes it a substituted phenethylamine, a family that includes numerous psychoactive drugs.
Numerous endogenous compounds – including hormones, monoamine neurotransmitters, and many trace amines (e.g., dopamine, norepinephrine, adrenaline, phenethylamine itself, tyramine, thyronamine, and iodothyronamine) – are substituted phenethylamines.

Neuromodulation

neuromodulatorneuromodulatorsvolume transmission
These pathways and cell groups form a dopamine system which is neuromodulatory.
Major neuromodulators in the central nervous system include: dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, norepinephrine and several neuropeptides.

TAAR1

trace amine-associated receptor 1TAAR1 agonisthTAAR1
In humans, dopamine has a high binding affinity at dopamine receptors and human trace amine-associated receptor 1 (hTAAR1).
TAAR1 plays a significant role in regulating neurotransmission in dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin neurons in the CNS; it also affects immune system and neuroimmune system function through different mechanisms.

Addiction

drug addictiondrug addictdrug addicts
The anticipation of most types of rewards increases the level of dopamine in the brain, and many addictive drugs increase dopamine release or block its reuptake into neurons following release.
The release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens plays a role in the reinforcing qualities of many forms of stimuli, including naturally reinforcing stimuli like palatable food and sex.

Dopamine receptor D5

D 5 DRD5D 5 receptors
D 1 receptors were shown to stimulate monophasic dose-dependent accumulation of cAMP in response to dopamine, and the D 5 receptors were able to stimulate biphasic accumulation of cAMP under the same conditions, suggesting that D 5 receptors may use a different system of secondary messengers than D 1 receptors.

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid

DOPACdihydroxyphenylaceticdihydroxyphenylacetic acid
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) is a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine.