Dopaminergic

dopaminergic drugsDADopamine precursordopamine secretingdopamine-producingdopaminergic nervedopaminergic neuronsdopaminergic projections
Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.wikipedia
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Dopamine

DAdopaminergic systemdopaminergic
Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter. * Dopamine receptor agonists such as apomorphine, bromocriptine, cabergoline, dihydrexidine (LS-186,899), dopamine, fenoldopam, piribedil, lisuride, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, and rotigotine, are used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and to treat depression and anxiety. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase or DOPA decarboxylase inhibitors including benserazide, carbidopa, and methyldopa, which are used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease in augmentation of L-DOPA to block the peripheral conversion of dopamine, thereby inhibiting undesirable side-effects, and as sympatholytic or antihypertensive agents.
Dopaminergic stimulants can be addictive in high doses, but some are used at lower doses to treat ADHD.

Lisuride

* Dopamine receptor agonists such as apomorphine, bromocriptine, cabergoline, dihydrexidine (LS-186,899), dopamine, fenoldopam, piribedil, lisuride, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, and rotigotine, are used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and to treat depression and anxiety.
Lisuride, sold under the brand names Dopergin, Proclacam, and Revanil, is an antiparkinson agent of the iso-ergoline class, chemically related to the dopaminergic ergoline Parkinson's drugs.

Parkinson's disease

ParkinsonParkinson diseaseParkinson’s disease
* Dopamine receptor agonists such as apomorphine, bromocriptine, cabergoline, dihydrexidine (LS-186,899), dopamine, fenoldopam, piribedil, lisuride, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, and rotigotine, are used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and to treat depression and anxiety. L-DOPA (Levodopa), another precursor, is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase or DOPA decarboxylase inhibitors including benserazide, carbidopa, and methyldopa, which are used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease in augmentation of L-DOPA to block the peripheral conversion of dopamine, thereby inhibiting undesirable side-effects, and as sympatholytic or antihypertensive agents.
The main pathological characteristics of PD are cell death in the brain's basal ganglia (affecting up to 70% of the dopamine secreting neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta by the end of life) and the presence of Lewy bodies (accumulations of the protein alpha-synuclein) in many of the remaining neurons.

Pramipexole

* Dopamine receptor agonists such as apomorphine, bromocriptine, cabergoline, dihydrexidine (LS-186,899), dopamine, fenoldopam, piribedil, lisuride, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, and rotigotine, are used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and to treat depression and anxiety.
The substantia nigra has a high quantity of dopaminergic neurons, which are nerve cells that release the neurotransmitter known as dopamine.

Dopamine reuptake inhibitor

DRIdopaminedopamine reuptake inhibition
Dopamine reuptake inhibitors (DRIs) or dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), bupropion (Wellbutrin), amineptine, and nomifensine, cocaine, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; "Sonic"), ketamine, and phencyclidine (PCP), among others, which are used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy as psychostimulants, obesity as anorectics, depression and anxiety as antidepressants and anxiolytics, respectively, drug addiction as anticraving agents, and sexual dysfunction, as well as illicit street drugs.
This results in increased extracellular concentrations of dopamine and increase in dopaminergic neurotransmission.

Amisulpride

* Dopamine receptor antagonists including typical antipsychotics such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine, haloperidol (Haldol), loxapine, molindone, perphenazine, pimozide, thioridazine, thiothixene, and trifluoperazine, the atypical antipsychotics such as amisulpride, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine (Seroquel), risperidone (Risperdal), sulpiride, and ziprasidone, and antiemetics like domperidone, metoclopramide, and prochlorperazine, among others, which are used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as antipsychotics, and nausea and vomiting.
Although standard doses used to treat psychosis inhibit dopaminergic neurotransmission, low doses preferentially block inhibitory presynaptic autoreceptors.

Pemoline

stimul
* Dopamine releasing agents (DRAs) such as phenethylamine, amphetamine, lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse), methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), phenmetrazine, pemoline, 4-methylaminorex (4-MAR), and benzylpiperazine, among many others, which, like DRIs, are used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy as psychostimulants, obesity as anorectics, depression and anxiety as antidepressants and anxiolytics respectively, drug addiction as anticraving agents, and sexual dysfunction as aphrodisiacs.
Pemoline is generally considered dopaminergic, but its precise method of action hasn't yet been definitively determined.

Dopamine agonist

dopamine agonistsdopamine receptor agonistagonist
* Dopamine receptor agonists such as apomorphine, bromocriptine, cabergoline, dihydrexidine (LS-186,899), dopamine, fenoldopam, piribedil, lisuride, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, and rotigotine, are used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and to treat depression and anxiety.
Dopaminergic

Addiction

drug addictiondrug addictdrug addicts
Dopamine reuptake inhibitors (DRIs) or dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), bupropion (Wellbutrin), amineptine, and nomifensine, cocaine, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; "Sonic"), ketamine, and phencyclidine (PCP), among others, which are used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy as psychostimulants, obesity as anorectics, depression and anxiety as antidepressants and anxiolytics, respectively, drug addiction as anticraving agents, and sexual dysfunction, as well as illicit street drugs. * Dopamine releasing agents (DRAs) such as phenethylamine, amphetamine, lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse), methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), phenmetrazine, pemoline, 4-methylaminorex (4-MAR), and benzylpiperazine, among many others, which, like DRIs, are used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy as psychostimulants, obesity as anorectics, depression and anxiety as antidepressants and anxiolytics respectively, drug addiction as anticraving agents, and sexual dysfunction as aphrodisiacs.
Table 1: Summary of plasticity observed following exposure to drug or natural reinforcers" Consequently, ΔFosB is the key transcription factor involved in addictions to natural rewards (i.e., behavioral addictions) as well; in particular, ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens is critical for the reinforcing effects of sexual reward. Research on the interaction between natural and drug rewards suggests that dopaminergic psychostimulants (e.g., amphetamine) and sexual behavior act on similar biomolecular mechanisms to induce ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens and possess bidirectional cross-sensitization effects that are mediated through ΔFosB. This phenomenon is notable since, in humans, a dopamine dysregulation syndrome, characterized by drug-induced compulsive engagement in natural rewards (specifically, sexual activity, shopping, and gambling), has also been observed in some individuals taking dopaminergic medications.

Phencyclidine

PCPangel dustphenylcyclidine
Dopamine reuptake inhibitors (DRIs) or dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), bupropion (Wellbutrin), amineptine, and nomifensine, cocaine, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; "Sonic"), ketamine, and phencyclidine (PCP), among others, which are used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy as psychostimulants, obesity as anorectics, depression and anxiety as antidepressants and anxiolytics, respectively, drug addiction as anticraving agents, and sexual dysfunction, as well as illicit street drugs.
In addition to its well explored interactions with NMDA receptors, PCP has also been shown to inhibit dopamine reuptake, and thereby leads to increased extracellular levels of dopamine and hence increased dopaminergic neurotransmission.

Methylphenidate

Ritalin(RS;SR)-Methylphenidatelevomethylphenidate
Dopamine reuptake inhibitors (DRIs) or dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), bupropion (Wellbutrin), amineptine, and nomifensine, cocaine, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; "Sonic"), ketamine, and phencyclidine (PCP), among others, which are used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy as psychostimulants, obesity as anorectics, depression and anxiety as antidepressants and anxiolytics, respectively, drug addiction as anticraving agents, and sexual dysfunction, as well as illicit street drugs.
Both amphetamine and methylphenidate are predominantly dopaminergic drugs, yet their mechanisms of action are distinct.

Dopamine antagonist

antidopaminergicantagonistdopamine antagonists
* Dopamine receptor antagonists including typical antipsychotics such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine, haloperidol (Haldol), loxapine, molindone, perphenazine, pimozide, thioridazine, thiothixene, and trifluoperazine, the atypical antipsychotics such as amisulpride, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine (Seroquel), risperidone (Risperdal), sulpiride, and ziprasidone, and antiemetics like domperidone, metoclopramide, and prochlorperazine, among others, which are used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as antipsychotics, and nausea and vomiting.
Dopaminergic

Methamphetamine

crystal methmethcrystal methamphetamine
* Dopamine releasing agents (DRAs) such as phenethylamine, amphetamine, lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse), methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), phenmetrazine, pemoline, 4-methylaminorex (4-MAR), and benzylpiperazine, among many others, which, like DRIs, are used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy as psychostimulants, obesity as anorectics, depression and anxiety as antidepressants and anxiolytics respectively, drug addiction as anticraving agents, and sexual dysfunction as aphrodisiacs.
A methamphetamine overdose will likely also result in mild brain damage due to dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity.

Amphetamine

speedbenzedrineamphetamines
* Dopamine releasing agents (DRAs) such as phenethylamine, amphetamine, lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse), methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), phenmetrazine, pemoline, 4-methylaminorex (4-MAR), and benzylpiperazine, among many others, which, like DRIs, are used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy as psychostimulants, obesity as anorectics, depression and anxiety as antidepressants and anxiolytics respectively, drug addiction as anticraving agents, and sexual dysfunction as aphrodisiacs.
These sex addictions are associated with a dopamine dysregulation syndrome which occurs in some patients taking dopaminergic drugs.

GABAergic

GABA receptorsGABA-ergicGABAergic neurons
GABAergic
Dopaminergic

Serotonergic

serotoninergic5-HTserotonergic agent
Serotonergic
Dopaminergic

Adrenergic

beta-adrenergicadrenergic agentsβ-adrenergic
Adrenergic
Dopaminergic

Methyldopa

α-methyldopaalpha methyldopaalpha-methyldopa
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase or DOPA decarboxylase inhibitors including benserazide, carbidopa, and methyldopa, which are used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease in augmentation of L-DOPA to block the peripheral conversion of dopamine, thereby inhibiting undesirable side-effects, and as sympatholytic or antihypertensive agents.
It is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme DOPA decarboxylase, also known as aromatic L -amino acid decarboxylase, which converts L -DOPA into dopamine. Dopamine is a precursor for norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and subsequently epinephrine (adrenaline). This inhibition results in reduced dopaminergic and adrenergic neurotransmission in the peripheral nervous system. This effect may lower blood pressure and cause central nervous system effects such as depression, anxiety, apathy, anhedonia, and parkinsonism. In addition, decreased dopamine may reduce its inhibitory effect on prolactin leading to signs and symptoms of hyperprolactinemia.

Cholinergic

cholinergic systemCholinergic neuronsacetylcholinergic
Cholinergic
Dopaminergic

Neurotransmitter

neurotransmittersexcitatory neurotransmitterneurotransmitter system
Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.

Protein

proteinsprotein synthesisproteinaceous
For example, certain proteins such as the dopamine transporter (DAT), vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT 2 ), and dopamine receptors can be classified as dopaminergic, and neurons that synthesize or contain dopamine and synapses with dopamine receptors in them may also be labeled as dopaminergic.

Dopamine transporter

DATdopaminedopamine plasma membrane transport proteins
Dopamine reuptake inhibitors (DRIs) or dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), bupropion (Wellbutrin), amineptine, and nomifensine, cocaine, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; "Sonic"), ketamine, and phencyclidine (PCP), among others, which are used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy as psychostimulants, obesity as anorectics, depression and anxiety as antidepressants and anxiolytics, respectively, drug addiction as anticraving agents, and sexual dysfunction, as well as illicit street drugs. For example, certain proteins such as the dopamine transporter (DAT), vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT 2 ), and dopamine receptors can be classified as dopaminergic, and neurons that synthesize or contain dopamine and synapses with dopamine receptors in them may also be labeled as dopaminergic.

Dopamine receptor

dopaminedopamine receptorsdopaminergic
For example, certain proteins such as the dopamine transporter (DAT), vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT 2 ), and dopamine receptors can be classified as dopaminergic, and neurons that synthesize or contain dopamine and synapses with dopamine receptors in them may also be labeled as dopaminergic.

Neuron

neuronsnerve cellsnerve cell
For example, certain proteins such as the dopamine transporter (DAT), vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT 2 ), and dopamine receptors can be classified as dopaminergic, and neurons that synthesize or contain dopamine and synapses with dopamine receptors in them may also be labeled as dopaminergic.