The Doric order of the Parthenon. Triglyphs marked "a", metopes "b", guttae "c" and mutules under the soffit "d".
Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. This small temple marks the place where St Peter was put to death
Two early Archaic Doric order Greek temples at Paestum (Italy) with much wider capitals than later
Temple of Vesta, Rome, 205 AD. As one of the most important temples of Ancient Rome, it became the model for Bramante's Tempietto
Entry to the Bibliothèque Mazarine (Paris), with four Doric columns in this photo.
Palladio's engraving of Bramante's Tempietto
Temple of the Delians, Delos; 19th-century pen-and-wash drawing
Plan of Bramante's Tempietto in Montorio
The Doric corner conflict
The Piazza del Campidoglio
The Roman Doric order from the Theater of Marcellus: triglyphs centered over the end column
The Romanesque Florence Baptistery was the object of Brunelleschi's studies of perspective
The Grange (nearby Northington, England), 1804, Europe's first house designed with all external detail of a Greek temple
Pope Sixtus IV, 1477, builder of the Sistine Chapel. Fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace.
Original Doric polychromy
Four Humanist philosophers under the patronage of the Medici: Marsilio Ficino, Cristoforo Landino, Angelo Poliziano and Demetrius Chalcondyles. Fresco by Domenico Ghirlandaio.
Upper parts, labelled
Cosimo de' Medici the Elder, head of the Medici Bank, sponsored civic building programs. Posthumous portrait by Pontormo.
Three Greek Doric columns
The Church of the Certosa di Pavia, Lombardy
The Five Orders, originally illustrated by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, 1640
Scuola Grande di San Marco, Venice
thumb|The ruins of the Temple of Poseidon from Sounion (Greece), 444–440 BC
Raphael's unused plan for St. Peter's Basilica
Exterior of the Great Tomb of Lefkadia, circa 300 BC <ref>{{cite book |last1=Fullerton|first1=Mark D.|title=Art & Archaeology of The Roman World|date=2020|publisher=Thames & Hudson|isbn=978-0-500-051931|page=87|language=en}}</ref>
Facade of Sant'Agostino, Rome, built in 1483 by Giacomo di Pietrasanta
Capital on the Parthenon from Athens
Classical Orders, engraving from the Encyclopédie vol. 18. 18th century.
Venus Temple at Hadrian's Villa in Tivoli (Italy), detail from the roof
The Dome of St Peter's Basilica, Rome.
Fragment of an Ancient Roman Doric frieze in Palestrina (Italy)
Courtyard of Palazzo Strozzi, Florence
Temple of Athena, Assos in Turkey
Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence.
Renaissance marble altar enframement, circa 1530–1550, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
The dome of Florence Cathedral (the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore)
Engraving of a Doric entablature from Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae, 1536, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art
The church of San Lorenzo
Engraving of a Doric capital from Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae, circa 1537, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Palazzo Medici Riccardi by Michelozzo. Florence, 1444
The monumental fireplace in the ballroom of the Palace of Fontainebleau (France), with a Doric frieze on it
Basilica of Sant'Andrea, Mantua, the façade
Door between a pair of Doric pilasters, in Montpellier (France)
Façade of Santa Maria Novella, 1456–70
Door between a pair of Doric pilasters, in Enkhuizen (the Netherlands)
The crossing of Santa Maria della Grazie, Milan (1490)
Capital of a Doric pilaster from Lviv (Ukraine)
picture above
Die Sünde, by Franz Stuck, from 1893, in a frame with a pair of engaged Doric columns
The Palazzo Farnese, Rome (1534–1545). Designed by Sangallo and Michelangelo.
Interior of the Metropolitan Museum of Art with Doric columns
Palazzo Pandolfini, Florence, by Raphael
The entrance of La Sorbonne from Paris, with a pair of Doric columns and an entablature with triglyphs and empty metopes
Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne.
Palazzo Te, Mantua
St Peter's Basilica
The vestibule of the Laurentian Library
Il Gesù, designed by Giacomo della Porta.
Villa Capra "La Rotonda"
Keystone with a profile of a man, Palazzo Giusti, Verona, Italy
The House of the Blackheads in Riga, Latvia
Royal Summer Palace in Prague is considered the purest Renaissance architecture outside of Italy.
Cathedral of St James, Šibenik
English Renaissance: Hardwick Hall (1590–1597).
French Renaissance: Château de Chambord (1519–39)
Juleum in Helmstedt, Germany (example of Weser Renaissance)
Antwerp City Hall (finished in 1564)
Courtyard of Wawel Castle exemplifies first period of Polish Renaissance
Cloister of the Convent of Christ, Tomar, Portugal, (1557–1591), Diogo de Torralva and Filippo Terzi.
The Palace of Facets on the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin.
Nordic Renaissance: Frederiksborg Palace (1602–20)
The Escorial (1563–1584), Madrid
Cathedral Basilica of Salvador built between 1657 and 1746, a UNESCO WHS.
The large Basilica of San Francisco in Quito, built between 1535 and 1650, a UNESCO World Heritage Site city.

The most influential, and perhaps the earliest, use of the Doric in Renaissance architecture was in the circular Tempietto by Donato Bramante (1502 or later), in the courtyard of San Pietro in Montorio, Rome.

- Doric order

Roman and Greek orders of columns are used: Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite.

- Renaissance architecture
The Doric order of the Parthenon. Triglyphs marked "a", metopes "b", guttae "c" and mutules under the soffit "d".

8 related topics

Alpha

Illustrations of the Classical orders (from left to right): Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite, made in 1728, from Cyclopædia

Classical order

Certain assemblage of parts subject to uniform established proportions, regulated by the office that each part has to perform.

Certain assemblage of parts subject to uniform established proportions, regulated by the office that each part has to perform.

Illustrations of the Classical orders (from left to right): Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite, made in 1728, from Cyclopædia
An illustration of the Five Architectural Orders engraved for the Encyclopédie, vol. 18, showing the Tuscan and Doric orders (top row); two versions of the Ionic order (center row); Corinthian and Composite orders (bottom row)
Greek orders with full height
Doric capital of the Parthenon from Athens
Ionic capital from the Queen Elizabeth II Great Court of the British Museum (London)
Corinthian capital of a column from the portico of the Pantheon from Rome
Tuscan capital and entablature, illustration from the 18th century
Composite capital in the former Palace of Justice (Budapest, Hungary)
The Tower of The Five Orders at the Bodleian Library at the University of Oxford, completed in 1619, includes Tuscan through Composite orders.
The St-Gervais-et-St-Protais Church in Paris presents columns of the three orders : Doric at the ground floor, Ionic at the second floor, Corinthian at the third floor
Corn capital at the Litchfield Villa Prospect Park (Brooklyn) (A.J. Davis, architect)
An illustration of the Five Architectural Orders engraved for the Encyclopédie, vol. 18, showing the Tuscan and Doric orders (top row); two versions of the Ionic order (center row); Corinthian and Composite orders (bottom row)

The three orders of architecture—the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian—originated in Greece.

The Giant order was invented by architects in the Renaissance.

Portrait of Palladio by Alessandro Maganza

Andrea Palladio

Italian Renaissance architect active in the Venetian Republic.

Italian Renaissance architect active in the Venetian Republic.

Portrait of Palladio by Alessandro Maganza
One of the first works by Palladio, Villa Godi (begun 1537)
Hall of the Muses of the Villa Godi (1537–1542)
Villa Piovene (1539)
Villa Pisani, Bagnolo (1542)
Palazzo Thiene (1542–1558), (begun by Giulio Romano, revised and completed by Palladio)
Basilica Palladiana, Vicenza
Ground floor and entrance stairway of the Basilica Palladiana
Upper level loggia of the Basilica Palladiana
Palazzo Chiericati (1550) in Vicenza
Palazzo del Capitaniato (1565–1572)
The front page of I quattro libri dell'architettura (The Four Books of Architecture) (1642 edition)
Villa Cornaro (begun 1553) combined rustic living and an imposing space for formal entertaining
The Hall of the Four Columns
Plan of the Villa Cornaro
The Villa Barbaro in Maser (begun 1557)
The Nymphaeum of the Villa Barbaro
Detail of the Hall of Olympus, with frescoes by Paolo Veronese
Villa Capra "La Rotonda" (begun 1566)
Palladio's plan of the Villa in I quattro libri dell'architettura, 1570
North facade of Villa Foscari, facing the Brenta Canal
Interior decoration of grotesques on salon ceiling of Villa Foscari
South facade of Villa Foscari, with the large windows that illuminate the main salon
Nave of San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice (1565)
Il Redentore Church in Venice (1576)
Interior of Il Redentore Church in Venice (1576)
Plan by Ottavio Bertotti Scamozzi
Facade of the Tempietto Barbaro
Section of the Tempietto Barbaro, drawn by Scamozzi (1783)
Stage with scenery designed by Vincenzo Scamozzi, who completed the theatre after the death of Palladio
Stage and seating of his last work, the Teatro Olimpico (1584)
House of the Director of the Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans, by Claude Nicolas Ledoux (1775)
La Rotonde customs barrier, Parc Monceau, by Claude Nicolas Ledoux
Palladian garden structure at Steinhöfel by David Gilly (1798)
The Queen's House, Greenwich by Inigo Jones (1616–1635)
Chiswick House by Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington and William Kent (completed 1729)
Wilton House south front by Inigo Jones (1650)
Palladio Bridge at Wilton House (1736–37)
Stourhead House by Colen Campbell (1721–24), inspired by Villa Capra
Harvard Hall at Harvard University by Thomas Dawes (1766)
Monticello, residence of Thomas Jefferson (1772)
Winning design for the first United States Capitol by Thomas Thornton (1793)
Clarity and harmony. Villa Badoer (1556–1563), an early use by Palladio of the elements of a Roman temple
The Basilica Palladiana, Vicenza, (begun 1546) with arched Palladian window and round oculi to the loggia.
A variation of the Palladian or Venetian window, with round oculi, at Villa Pojana (1548–49)
Late Palladio style, Mannerist decoration on the facade of the Palazzo del Capitanio (1565–1572)
Palazzo Strozzi courtyard
Villa Capra "La Rotonda" outside Vicenza
San Francesco della Vigna in Venice
Villa Porto
Villa Valmarana
Villa Emo
Villa Saraceno
Villa Cornaro
Palazzo del Capitaniato, Vicenza
Palazzo Thiene Bonin Longare, Vicenza

The two-story facade with a double loggia was divided into eleven spaces by rows of Doric columns, while a Doric cornice separated the lower level from the more important piano nobile above.

The basic elements of Italian Renaissance architecture, including Doric columns, lintels, cornices, loggias, pediments and domes had already been used in the 15th century or earlier, before Palladio.

Entablatures at Caesarea Maritima

Entablature

Superstructure of moldings and bands which lies horizontally above columns, resting on their capitals.

Superstructure of moldings and bands which lies horizontally above columns, resting on their capitals.

Entablatures at Caesarea Maritima
Entablature at the Temple of Venus Genetrix, Rome
Entablature of the Doric order
Entablature of the Ionic order
Entablature of the Corinthian order

In Roman and Renaissance interpretations, it is usually approximately a quarter of the height of the column.

In the pure classical Doric order entablature is simple.

Portrait of Dante Alighieri by Cristofano dell'Altissimo, Uffizi Gallery Florence

Italian Renaissance

Period in Italian history covering the 15th and 16th centuries.

Period in Italian history covering the 15th and 16th centuries.

Portrait of Dante Alighieri by Cristofano dell'Altissimo, Uffizi Gallery Florence
Pandolfo Malatesta (1417–1468), lord of Rimini, by Piero della Francesca. Malatesta was a capable condottiere, following the tradition of his family. He was hired by the Venetians to fight against the Turks (unsuccessfully) in 1465, and was the patron of Leone Battista Alberti, whose Tempio Malatestiano at Rimini is one of the first entirely classical buildings of the Renaissance.
Portrait of Cosimo de' Medici by Jacopo Pontormo
Leonardo da Vinci, Italian Renaissance Man
Giulio Clovio, Adoration of the Magi and Solomon Adored by the Queen of Sheba from the Farnese Hours, 1546
Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527), the author of The Prince and prototypical Renaissance man. Detail from a portrait by Santi di Tito.
Petrarch, from the Cycle of Famous Men and Women. ca. 1450. Detached fresco. 247 x. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy. Artist: Andrea di Bartolo di Bargilla (ca. 1423–1457).
Detail of The Last Judgment, 1536–1541, by Michelangelo
David by Donatello
Bramante's Tempietto in San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502
Claudio Monteverdi by Bernardo Strozzi

The Italian Renaissance has a reputation for its achievements in painting, architecture, sculpture, literature, music, philosophy, science, technology, and exploration.

Here the pilasters follow the superposition of classical orders, with Doric capitals on the ground floor, Ionic capitals on the piano nobile and Corinthian capitals on the uppermost floor.

National Capitol Columns at the United States National Arboretum in Washington, D.C.

Column

Structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below.

Structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below.

National Capitol Columns at the United States National Arboretum in Washington, D.C.
Columns of the Parliament House in Helsinki, Finland
Column of the Gordon Monument in Waterloo.
Dragon pillar from the Yingzao Fashi, Song dynasty
Plan, front view and side view of a typical Persepolis column, of Persia (Iran)
A granite structure column by Hilma Flodin-Rissanen in Vyborg
Table showing values of K for structural columns of various end conditions (adapted from Manual of Steel Construction, 8th edition, American Institute of Steel Construction, Table C1.8.1)
Illustration of papyriform capitals, in The Grammar of Ornament
Illustration of various types of capitals, drawn by the egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius
Columns with Hathoric capitals
Papyriform columns of the Luxor Temple
Minoan columns at the West Bastion of the Palace of Knossos
Illustration of the end of a Mycenaean column, from the Tomb of Agamemnon
Illustration of the Tuscan order
Illustration of the Doric order
Illustration of the Ionic order
Evolution of the Corinthian order
Illustration of the Composite order
Praying Woman between two ionic columns, 2nd century, marble, in the Louvre
Byzantine columns from Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo (Ravenna, Italy)
The capital of a Byzantine column from Hagia Sophia (Istanbul, Turkey)
Romanesque columns from the 12th century
Gothic columns of a church from Neuwiller-lès-Saverne (France)
Slender Gothic columns at a portal of {{Interlanguage link|Marienkirche Gelnhausen|de|Marienkirche (Gelnhausen)}} (Gelnhausen, Germany)
Column use is common in Ottoman architecture, an example in Topkapı Palace (Istanbul, Turkey)
thumb|Decorated pillars. Mosque. Kashgar
The Great Hypostyle Hall from Karnak (Egypt)
Columns found at the Temple of Apollo in Delphi
Rococo detail of a column from St. Peter's Church (Mainz, Germany)
At right, two of the Solomonic columns brought to Rome by Constantine, in their present-day location on a pier in St. Peter's Basilica (Rome). In the foreground at left is part of Bernini's Baldachin, inspired by the original columns.
Ionic capital
Tuscan columns can be seen at the University of Virginia
Church of San Prospero (Reggio Emilia, Italy)
Construction of Sigismund's Column in Warsaw, detail of the 1646 engraving.
These are composed of stacked segments and finished in the Corinthian style, at the Temple of Bel (Syria)
The pillars of Bankstown Reservoir (Sydney, Australia)
Reused Roman columns and capitals in the Great Mosque of Kairouan
Engaged columns embedded in the side walls of the cella of the Maison Carrée in Nîmes (France)

Their Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders were expanded by the Romans to include the Tuscan and Composite orders.

Renaissance architecture was keen to revive the classical vocabulary and styles, and the informed use and variation of the classical orders remained fundamental to the training of architects throughout Baroque, Rococo and Neo-classical architecture.

Granada

Capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.

Capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.

Puerta Monaita, one of the 11th-century Zirid gates in the Albaicin
Sigil of the Nasrid dynasty located in the Palacio de Comares.
Historic map of Granada by Piri Reis (16th century)
The Capitulation of Granada by F. Padilla: Muhammad XII before Ferdinand and Isabella (circa 1882).
16th-century view of the city, as depicted in the Civitates orbis terrarum.
Early 17th-century map of Granada
A satellite view centered on Granada displaying Sierra Nevada to the east and the rest of the Vega of Granada, including a number of the municipalities part of the urban area of Granada to the west.
A panoramic view of Granada city, April 2017.
Muqarnas ceiling in the Palace of the Lions, one of the Nasrid palaces
Panoramic view of the Alhambra with Sierra Nevada in the background.
The Generalife Palace
Cathedral of Granada, south portal
Isabelline-Gothic Royal Chapel of Granada
The view of the Albaicín from the Alhambra
Tabernacle Dome, Granada Charterhouse.
The exterior of the Palace of Charles V in Granada was built upon his wedding to Isabel of Portugal in 1526.
Francisco Cuenca, mayor of Granada since 2021.
Royal Gate (Puerta Real)
Albayzín neighborhood
Granada City Hall
The Granada Science Park.
Nuevo Estadio de Los Cármenes
Hans Memling - Diptych of Granada, left wing:Acceptance of the Cross, h. 1475
Juan de Flandes - Birth of Christ, 1435-1438
Sandro Botticelli - Prayer of the Garden, 1498-1500
Mosaic from a Roman villa, dating from 1 AD, discovered in the district of Los Mondragones in Granada (now kept at the Archaeological Museum)

The 16th century also saw a flourishing of Mudéjar architecture and Renaissance architecture, followed later by Baroque and Churrigueresque styles.

The courtyard, with galleries of arches on Doric order columns opening on it, is centered by a fountain.

Basilica Palladiana

Basilica Palladiana

Basilica Palladiana
Clocktower (Torre Bissara) and loggia of the Basilica Palladiana
Upper level loggia
Ground floor
A night view of the Basilica Palladiana
Basilica Palladiana, view from Monte Berico
Detail of the upper loggia with two serliana (drawn from I quattro libri dell'architettura)

The Basilica Palladiana is a Renaissance building in the central Piazza dei Signori in Vicenza, north-eastern Italy.

The loggias in the lower floor were in the Doric order; the associated entablature has a frieze which alternates metope (decorated by dishes and bucrania) and triglyphs.

The palace, seen from the west

Palace of Charles V

The palace, seen from the west
A gallery of the Alhambra Museum; showing marble pieces from the Nasrid period, including a lion sculpture from the Maristan (right)
A gallery inside the Fine Arts Museum of Granada

The Palace of Charles V is a Renaissance building in Granada, southern Spain, inside the Alhambra, a former Nasrid palace complex on top of the Sabika hill.

The lower consists of a Doric colonnade of conglomerate stone, with an orthodox classical entablature formed of triglyphs and metopes.