Dou Jiande

Xia
Dou Jiande (573 – August 3, 621 ) was a leader of the agrarian rebels who rose against the rule of Emperor Yang of Sui near the end of the Chinese Sui dynasty.wikipedia
116 Related Articles

Empress Cao (Dou Jiande's wife)

Empress CaoLady Cao
In 621, when the Tang dynasty general Li Shimin (later Emperor Taizong) attacked Wang Shichong the Emperor of Zheng, who ruled the modern Henan region, Dou believed that if Tang were able to destroy Zheng, his own Xia state would suffer the same fate, and therefore went to Wang's aid, against the advice of his strategist Ling Jing and his wife Empress Cao.
Empress Cao (曹皇后, personal name unknown) was the wife of Dou Jiande, an agrarian rebel leader who claimed the title of Prince of Xia at the end of the Chinese dynasty Sui Dynasty.

Wang Shichong

Zheng
In 621, when the Tang dynasty general Li Shimin (later Emperor Taizong) attacked Wang Shichong the Emperor of Zheng, who ruled the modern Henan region, Dou believed that if Tang were able to destroy Zheng, his own Xia state would suffer the same fate, and therefore went to Wang's aid, against the advice of his strategist Ling Jing and his wife Empress Cao.
After becoming emperor, however, he was unable to withstand military pressure from Tang dynasty forces, forcing him to seek aid from Dou Jiande the Prince of Xia.

Battle of Hulao

campaigndefeated Dou and captured himdefeated in battle
Li defeated him at the Battle of Hulao, capturing him.
It was a decisive victory for the Tang prince Li Shimin, through which he was able to subdue two rival warlords, Dou Jiande who headed the Xia regime in Hebei, and Wang Shichong, the self-declared emperor of the Zheng dynasty.

Emperor Gaozu of Tang

Emperor GaozuLi YuanGaozu
Li's father Emperor Gaozu of Tang subsequently put Dou to death.
Aided by Li Shimin, whom he created the Prince of Qin, he defeated all the other contenders, including Li Gui, Dou Jiande, Wang Shichong, Xue Rengao and Liu Wuzhou.

Emperor Taizong of Tang

Emperor TaizongLi ShiminTaizong
In 621, when the Tang dynasty general Li Shimin (later Emperor Taizong) attacked Wang Shichong the Emperor of Zheng, who ruled the modern Henan region, Dou believed that if Tang were able to destroy Zheng, his own Xia state would suffer the same fate, and therefore went to Wang's aid, against the advice of his strategist Ling Jing and his wife Empress Cao.
Wang sought aid Dou Jiande the Prince of Xia, who controlled most of modern Hebei.

Liu Heita

Xia territory was briefly seized by Tang, but soon Dou's general Liu Heita rose against Tang rule, recapturing Dou's territory, and held out against Tang until 623.
He eventually followed Dou Jiande the Prince of Xia.

Li Mi (Sui dynasty)

Li MiLee MatLee Mil
In fall 617, at Emperor Yang's orders, the general Xue Shixiong, who was in charged of defending Zhuo Commandery, led his 30,000 men south, intending to attack Li Mi—then generally recognized as the strongest rebel leader.
He gained so much following that there was widespread expectation that he soon would be able to prevail over Sui forces and establish a new dynasty—so much so that even other key rebel leaders, including Dou Jiande, Meng Haigong, Xu Yuanlang, and Zhu Can, were urging him to take imperial title.

Emperor Yang of Sui

Emperor YangYang GuangYángdi
Dou Jiande (573 – August 3, 621 ) was a leader of the agrarian rebels who rose against the rule of Emperor Yang of Sui near the end of the Chinese Sui dynasty.
Yang Yichen died soon thereafter, and the rebels north of the Yellow River reinvigorated themselves under Dou Jiande.

Tang dynasty

TangTang ChinaTang Empire
In 621, when the Tang dynasty general Li Shimin (later Emperor Taizong) attacked Wang Shichong the Emperor of Zheng, who ruled the modern Henan region, Dou believed that if Tang were able to destroy Zheng, his own Xia state would suffer the same fate, and therefore went to Wang's aid, against the advice of his strategist Ling Jing and his wife Empress Cao.
Fighting a numerically superior army, he defeated Dou Jiande (573–621) at Luoyang in the Battle of Hulao on May 28, 621.

Yuwen Huaji

Woomun Hwa GeubXuYu-man Fa-kup
Soon, news arrived from Jiangdu that Emperor Yang had been killed in a coup led by the general Yuwen Huaji.
He subsequently declared Emperor Yang's nephew Yang Hao emperor and led Emperor Yang's elite Xiaoguo Army north, but was then repeatedly defeated by Li Mi, Li Shentong, and finally Dou Jiande.

Luo Yi

Li YiLo Ngai
Dou wrote back in humble and polite terms, but declined with the excuse that he needed to defend an attack from Luo Yi (a former Sui official who had seized Zhuo Commandery himself) from the north.
Subsequently, the rebel leaders Dou Jiande the Prince of Xia and Gao Kaidao both sent messengers to try to get him to submit, but Luo, viewing Dou and Gao as bandits, refused.

Li Shiji

Li JiXu ShijiXu Maogong
By fall 619, Li Shentong, responsible for the Tang operations in the area, had been forced to withdraw to Liyang (黎陽, in modern Hebi, Henan), to join forces with another Tang general, Li Shiji (a former follower of Li Mi).
As a result, more than 200,000 men joined Li Mi within about 10 days, and a number of commanderies submitted to him, including the major rebel generals Dou Jiande and Zhu Can.

Yang Yichen (Sui dynasty)

Yang YichenYuchi Yichen
Later that year, one of the most capable Sui generals, Yang Yichen, defeated Zhang and slaughtered his troops.
Around the new year 617, Gao, going against the advice of his subordinate Dou Jiande, engaged Yang Yichen, and Yang Yichen defeated and killed Gao and nearly captured Dou.

Gao Kaidao

Luo, believing both Dou and Gao Kaidao (who also tried to get him to submit) to be simply bandits, instead submitted to Tang.
Both he and another rebel leader, Dou Jiande, tried to get Luo Yi, who then occupied You Prefecture (幽州, roughly modern Beijing), to submit, but Luo refused, submitting instead to Tang Dynasty.

Wei Zheng

Wee JingWei, ZhengWèi Zhēng
In winter 619, while proceeding toward Wei Prefecture (衛州, roughly modern Xinxiang, Henan), he was ambushed by Li Shiji, and, in anger, he attacked Liyang, capturing it as well as Li Shentong, Li Shiji's father Li Gai, Wei Zheng, and Emperor Gaozu's sister Princess Tong'an.
In winter 619, when Dou Jiande the Prince of Xia, one of Tang's major rivals, attacked and captured Liyang, Wei was among the people captured by Dou, along with Emperor Gaozu's cousin Li Shentong the Prince of Huai'an, Emperor Gaozu's sister Princess Tong'an, and Li Shiji's father Li Gai .

Xu Yuanlang

Dou then merged the troops from Meng Haigong and Xu Yuanlang (whom he had defeated earlier as well) and headed from Meng's headquarters at Cao Prefecture (in modern Heze as well) toward Luoyang, joining forces with the Zheng general Guo Shiheng, and he defeated several cities held by Tang.
After doing so, he did not initially claim any royal title, instead successively submitting nominally to Li Mi the Duke of Wei, Emperor Yang's grandson Yang Tong, Dou Jiande the Prince of Xia, and Tang Dynasty.

Ashina Xichun

Chuluo KhanChuluoChuluo Qaghan
Also around this time, Ashina Duojishi's brother and successor, the Chuluo Khan Ashina Qilifu planned a major assault on Tang, and as part of the plan, he requested Dou to cross the Taihang Mountains and meet him at Jin (晉州, roughly modern Linfen, Shanxi) and Jiang (絳州, roughly modern Yuncheng, Shanxi) Prefectures, but Ashina Qilifu soon died and did not carry out the campaign.
Starting to plan a major assault as advised by Liang Shidu, he became allied to Wang Shichong and Dou Jiande.

Empress Xiao (Sui dynasty)

Empress XiaoPrincess XiaoXiao
Dou captured Yuwen and formally greeted Emperor Yang's wife Empress Xiao, referring to himself as "your subject."
In 619, Yuwen Huaji was captured and executed by one of the rebel leaders, Dou Jiande the Prince of Xia.

Yang Tong

Gong of SuiYangtongYáng Tóng
After this victory, Dou made peace with Wang Shichong and nominally submitted to Yang Tong, the grandson of Emperor Yang who claimed Sui's imperial title at Luoyang after Emperor Yang's death (and whose court was then controlled by Wang Shichong).
Most of Li Mi's former territory (modern central and eastern Henan) surrendered to Wang, and around the same time, the rebel generals Du Fuwei (who controlled modern central and southern Anhui), Shen Faxing (who controlled modern Zhejiang), Zhu Can (whose army roamed in southern Henan), and Dou Jiande (who controlled modern Hebei), all nominally submitted to Yang Tong, and at least in appearance, it appeared that Sui power was becoming restored under Yang Tong.

Pei Ju

Meanwhile, Dou incorporated many key Sui officials into his government, particularly entrusting Pei Ju with reorganizing his government in the form of an imperial one.
He was subsequently captured and executed by another rebel ruler, Dou Jiande the Prince of Xia, in 619.

Li Yuanji

Lei Yuen GatLee WongilYuanji
He left his brother Li Yuanji and the general Qutu Tong at Luoyang, continuing the siege, while proceeding to Hulao himself.
When subsequently another rival ruler, Dou Jiande the Prince of Xia, came to Wang's aid, Li Shimin left Li Yuanji at Luoyang to continue the siege and to watch Wang, while he himself advanced to Hulao Pass to engage Dou.

Li Jiancheng

Historical sourcesJiancheng
When Dou's generals, who had already previously surrendered or hid themselves in the countryside, heard about Dou's death, they rebelled under the leadership of Liu Heita, who publicly mourned Dou and was eventually able to take back all of Xia territory, but eventually was defeated first by Li Shimin and then by Li Shimin's older brother Li Jiancheng and killed in 623.
Although Li Jiancheng had made contributions towards Tang's reunification of China, Li Shimin had defeated a number of the most important contenders including Xue Rengao, the Emperor of Qin, Wang Shichong, the Emperor of Zheng, and Dou Jiande, the Prince of Xia.

Hulao Pass

HulaoSishui Pass
He suggested for Li Shimin to proceed to Hulao Pass, east of Luoyang, and defend it against the coming Dou attack.
Also here, in the Battle of Hulao of 621, Li Shimin defeated Dou Jiande and forced Wang Shichong to surrender, laying the foundation to the Tang Dynasty.

History of China

Chineseimperial Chinaancient China
Dou Jiande (573 – August 3, 621 ) was a leader of the agrarian rebels who rose against the rule of Emperor Yang of Sui near the end of the Chinese Sui dynasty.

Sui dynasty

SuiSui ChinaSui Empire
Dou Jiande (573 – August 3, 621 ) was a leader of the agrarian rebels who rose against the rule of Emperor Yang of Sui near the end of the Chinese Sui dynasty.