Dough

Unleavened doughYeast doughaiyshbread doughcroissant doughflour and waterflour doughmodeling doughpastry doughPizza dough
Dough is a thick, malleable, sometimes elastic, paste made out of any grains, leguminous or chestnut crops.wikipedia
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Bread

breadsbreadmakingleavened bread
The process of making and shaping dough is a precursor to making a wide variety of foodstuffs, particularly breads and bread-based items, but also including biscuits, cakes, cookies, dumplings, flatbreads, noodles, pasta, pastry, pizza, piecrusts, and similar items.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.

Paste (food)

pastepastesfood paste
Dough is a thick, malleable, sometimes elastic, paste made out of any grains, leguminous or chestnut crops.
Perhaps the most notable of such intermediary food pastes is dough.

Baker's yeast

yeastbaking yeastbudding yeast
Dough is typically made by mixing flour with a small amount of water and/or other liquid, and sometimes includes flour yeast or other leavening agents as well as other ingredients such as various fats or flavorings.
Baker's yeast is the common name for the strains of yeast commonly used as a leavening agent in baking bread and bakery products, where it converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into carbon dioxide and ethanol.

Noodle

noodlesegg noodleegg noodles
The process of making and shaping dough is a precursor to making a wide variety of foodstuffs, particularly breads and bread-based items, but also including biscuits, cakes, cookies, dumplings, flatbreads, noodles, pasta, pastry, pizza, piecrusts, and similar items.
They are made from unleavened dough which is stretched, extruded, or rolled flat and cut into one of a variety of shapes.

Pizza

pizzeriafrozen pizzapizza oven
The process of making and shaping dough is a precursor to making a wide variety of foodstuffs, particularly breads and bread-based items, but also including biscuits, cakes, cookies, dumplings, flatbreads, noodles, pasta, pastry, pizza, piecrusts, and similar items.
Pizza is a savory dish of Italian origin, consisting of a usually round, flattened base of leavened wheat-based dough topped with tomatoes, cheese, and various other ingredients (anchovies, olives, meat, etc.) baked at a high temperature, traditionally in a wood-fired oven.

Flour

farinaceouswhite flourmeal
Dough is typically made by mixing flour with a small amount of water and/or other liquid, and sometimes includes flour yeast or other leavening agents as well as other ingredients such as various fats or flavorings.
The FDA has been advised by several cookie dough manufacturers that they have implemented the use of heat-treated flour for their "ready-to-bake cookie dough" products to reduce the risk of E. coli bacterial contamination.

Pastry

pastriespastry doughcrust
The process of making and shaping dough is a precursor to making a wide variety of foodstuffs, particularly breads and bread-based items, but also including biscuits, cakes, cookies, dumplings, flatbreads, noodles, pasta, pastry, pizza, piecrusts, and similar items.
Pastry can also refer to the pastry dough, from which such baked products are made.

Kneading

kneadedkneaddough hook
Doughs vary widely depending on ingredients, the kind of product being produced, the type of leavening agent (particularly whether the dough is based on yeast or not), how the dough is mixed (whether quickly mixed or kneaded and left to rise), and cooking or baking technique.
Kneading is a process in the making of bread or pasta dough, used to mix the ingredients and add strength to the final product.

Dough conditioner

Commercial bread doughs may also include dough conditioners, a class of ingredients that aid in dough consistency and final product.
A dough conditioner is any ingredient or chemical added to bread dough to strengthen its texture or otherwise improve it in some way.

Wheat

cornTriticumdwarf wheat
Doughs are made from a wide variety of flours, commonly wheat but also flours made from maize, rice, rye, legumes, almonds, and other cereals and crops used around the world.
The quality of the wheat protein gluten. This protein can determine the suitability of a wheat to a particular dish. A strong and elastic gluten present in bread wheats enables dough to trap carbon dioxide during leavening, but elastic gluten interferes with the rolling of pasta into thin sheets. The gluten protein in durum wheats used for pasta is strong but not elastic.

Sourdough

sourdough breadsourdough starterlevain
For yeast-based and sponge (such as sourdough) breads, a common production technique is the dough is mixed, kneaded, and then left to rise.
Sourdough bread is made by the fermentation of dough using naturally occurring lactobacilli and yeast.

Batter (cooking)

batterbatteredbatters
Quick breads use leavening agents other than yeast (such as baking powder or baking soda), and include most cookies, cakes, biscuits, and more; these may be based on a batter or a dough. Pancakes, waffles, some kinds of bar cookies such as brownies, and many cakes and quick breads (including muffins and the like) are often made with a semi-liquid batter of flour and liquid that is poured into the final shape, rather than a solid dough.
Batter is thin dough that can be easily poured into a pan.

Proofing (baking technique)

proofingproofedcouche
Many bread doughs call for a second stage, where the dough is kneaded again, shaped into the final form, and left to rise a final time (or proofed) before baking.
Proofing (also called proving or more rarely blooming), as the term is used by bakers, is the final rise of shaped bread dough before baking.

Gnocchi

Gnocchi carratiEiernockerlgnocchetti
Pasta is typically made from a dry dough that is kneaded and shaped, either through extrusion, rolling out in a pasta machine, or stretched or shaped by hand (as for gnocchi or dumplings).
Gnocchi (,, ;, singular gnocco) are various thick, small, and soft dough dumplings that may be made from semolina, ordinary wheat flour, egg, cheese, potato, breadcrumbs, cornmeal, or similar ingredients, and possibly including flavourings of herbs, vegetables, cocoa, or prunes.

Pasta

pasta saucepastasDry Pasta
The process of making and shaping dough is a precursor to making a wide variety of foodstuffs, particularly breads and bread-based items, but also including biscuits, cakes, cookies, dumplings, flatbreads, noodles, pasta, pastry, pizza, piecrusts, and similar items. Pasta is typically made from a dry dough that is kneaded and shaped, either through extrusion, rolling out in a pasta machine, or stretched or shaped by hand (as for gnocchi or dumplings).
Also commonly used to refer to the variety of dishes made with it, pasta is typically made from an unleavened dough of a durum wheat flour mixed with water or eggs, and formed into sheets or various shapes, then cooked by boiling or baking.

Pita

pita breadpideflatbread
Flatbreads such as pita, lafa, lavash, matzah or matzo, naan, roti, sangak, tortilla, and yufka are eaten around the world and are also made from dough.
Most pita are baked at high temperatures (450 - 475 F), which turns the water in the dough into steam, thus causing the pita to puff up and form a pocket.

Flatbread

flat breadpideflatbreads
The process of making and shaping dough is a precursor to making a wide variety of foodstuffs, particularly breads and bread-based items, but also including biscuits, cakes, cookies, dumplings, flatbreads, noodles, pasta, pastry, pizza, piecrusts, and similar items.
A flatbread is a bread made with flour, water and salt, and then thoroughly rolled into flattened dough.

List of fried dough foods

fried doughfried-doughfried dough food
Fried dough foods are also common in many cultures.
This is a list of fried dough foods. Many cultures have dishes that are prepared by deep frying dough in many various forms.

Waffle

wafflesBánh kẹp lá dứagaufre
Pancakes, waffles, some kinds of bar cookies such as brownies, and many cakes and quick breads (including muffins and the like) are often made with a semi-liquid batter of flour and liquid that is poured into the final shape, rather than a solid dough.
A waffle is a dish made from leavened batter or dough that is cooked between two plates that are patterned to give a characteristic size, shape, and surface impression.

Yufka

Yupqa
Flatbreads such as pita, lafa, lavash, matzah or matzo, naan, roti, sangak, tortilla, and yufka are eaten around the world and are also made from dough.
After kneading, the dough is allowed to rest for 30 min.

Gluten

glutinouswheat glutenglutin
Kneading is the process of working a dough to produce a smooth, elastic dough by developing gluten.
Glutens, and most especially the Triticeae glutens, are appreciated for their viscoelastic properties, which give dough its elasticity, helping it rise and keep its shape and often leaving the final product with a chewy texture.

Leavening agent

leavenedunleavenedleavening
Dough is typically made by mixing flour with a small amount of water and/or other liquid, and sometimes includes flour yeast or other leavening agents as well as other ingredients such as various fats or flavorings. Doughs vary widely depending on ingredients, the kind of product being produced, the type of leavening agent (particularly whether the dough is based on yeast or not), how the dough is mixed (whether quickly mixed or kneaded and left to rise), and cooking or baking technique.
A leaven, often called a leavening agent (and also known as a raising agent), is any one of a number of substances used in doughs and batters that cause a foaming action (gas bubbles) that lightens and softens the mixture.

Farinograph

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Farinograph – a tool that measures specific properties of flour
The farinograph is a tool used for measuring the shear and viscosity of a mixture of flour and water.

Hand mixer

mixerelectric mixerfood mixer
Dough blender
It is used for kneading large quantities of dough.