Jef Raskin holding a model of the Canon Cat.
Dr. Dobb's Journal, December 2000 issue
The original Macintosh 128k, very different from Raskin's design

Raskin occasionally wrote for computer publications, such as Dr. Dobb's Journal.

- Jef Raskin

Other contributors included Jef Raskin, later credited as a leader in the Macintosh development; Hal Hardenberg, the originator of DTACK Grounded an early newsletter for Motorola 68000 based software and hardware; and Gary Kildall, who had created CP/M, the first disk operating system for microcomputers which was not married to proprietary hardware.

- Dr. Dobb's Journal

172 related topics


Andy Hertzfeld

American software engineer and innovator who was a member of the original Apple Macintosh development team during the 1980s.

Hertzfeld at an Apple User Group Connection meeting in 1985

He went on to write for Call-A.P.P.L.E. and Dr. Dobb's Journal and soon came to the attention of Apple Computer.

Working for Bud Tribble alongside Bill Atkinson and Burrell Smith, Hertzfeld became a primary software architect of the Macintosh Operating System, which was considered revolutionary in its use of the graphical user interface (GUI) where Jef Raskin also made contributions.

Steve Wozniak

American electronics engineer, computer programmer, philanthropist, inventor, and technology entrepreneur.

Wozniak in 2017
Wozniak's 1968 Homestead High School yearbook photo
Wozniak's blue box at the Computer History Museum
Original 1976 Apple 1 computer in a briefcase, from the Sydney Powerhouse Museum collection.
An Apple II computer with an external modem
An original Macintosh with hardware
Wozniak in 1983
Wozniak and Macintosh system software designer Andy Hertzfeld at an Apple User Group Connection meeting in 1985
Wozniak at Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre, Australia, 2012
Wozniak speaking at a conference in Paradise Valley, Arizona in 2017
Paul Allen and Wozniak at the Living Computer Museum in 2017
Wozniak and Joey Slotnick (left), who portrayed him in the 1999 film Pirates of Silicon Valley
Wozniak and then-girlfriend Kathy Griffin in 2008
Wozniak signs a Modbook at Macworld Expo in 2009

With software engineer Jef Raskin, Wozniak had a major influence over the initial development of the original Apple Macintosh concepts from 1979 to 1981, when Jobs took over the project following Wozniak's brief departure from the company due to a traumatic airplane accident.


Family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. (originally as Apple Computer, Inc.) since January 1984.

Clockwise from top: MacBook Air (2015), iMac G5 20" (2004), Macintosh II (1987), Power Mac G4 Cube (2000), iBook G3 Blueberry (1999) and original Macintosh 128K (1984)
A prototype of the Macintosh from 1981 (at the Computer History Museum)
The Apple Macintosh Plus at the Design Museum in Gothenburg, Sweden
The Macintosh II, the first Macintosh model with color graphics
The Macintosh SE, updated Compact Macintosh design using Snow White design language
The Macintosh Portable, Apple's first battery-powered Macintosh
The Macintosh LC II with a Macintosh 12" RGB Display.
The PowerBook 100
The iMac G3, introduced in 1998. Though it led Apple's return to profitability, its associated mouse was one of consumers' least favorite products.
2006 MacBook Pro
27-inch Slim Unibody iMac
The 15-inch late 2016 MacBook Pro with the Touch Bar
2020 MacBook Pro
An iMac G5 with its back panel removed
The original Macintosh introduced a radically new graphical user interface for personal computers. Users interact with the computer using a metaphorical desktop with icons of real life items, instead of abstract textual commands.

The Macintosh project began in the year 1979 when Jef Raskin, an Apple employee, envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer.

Apple Lisa

Desktop computer developed by Apple, released on January 19, 1983.

Lisa, with an Apple ProFile external hard disk atop it, and dual 5.25-inch floppy drives
Lisa IO board with a Macintosh XL UV-EPROM installed
Lisa 2
Macintosh XL
A screenshot of Lisa Office System 3.1
A screenshot of the Apple Lisa Workshop
An original Apple Lisa at work, Apple Convention, Boston, Spring 1983

In 1982, after Steve Jobs was forced out of the Lisa project by Apple's Board of Directors, he then appropriated the Macintosh project from Jef Raskin, who had originally conceived of a sub-$1,000 text-based appliance computer in 1979.

Apple Inc.

American multinational technology company that specializes in consumer electronics, software and online services headquartered in Cupertino, California, United States.

In 1976, Steve Jobs co-founded Apple in his parents' home on Crist Drive in Los Altos, California. Although it is widely believed that the company was founded in the house's garage, Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak called it "a bit of a myth". Jobs and Wozniak did, however, move some operations to the garage when the bedroom became too crowded.
Apple's first product, the Apple I, designed by Steve Wozniak, was sold as an assembled circuit board and lacked basic features such as a keyboard, monitor, and case. The owner of this unit added a keyboard and wooden case.
The Apple II Plus, introduced in 1979, designed primarily by Wozniak
The Macintosh, released in 1984, is the first mass-market personal computer to feature an integral graphical user interface and mouse.
The PenLite is Apple's first prototype of a tablet computer. Created in 1992, the project was designed to bring the Mac OS to a tablet – but was canceled in favor of the Newton.
The MacBook Pro, Apple's first laptop with an Intel microprocessor, introduced in 2006
Newly announced iPhone on display at the 2007 MacWorld Expo
Apple customers wait in line around an Apple Store in Shanghai in anticipation of a new product.
Apple Campus (1 Infinite Loop)
Apple Fifth Avenue, the flagship store in New York City
The Genius Bar at Apple's Regent Street store in London
The Apple store in the Carnegie Library of Washington D.C. maintains the building's historic exterior design.
Steve Wozniak and Andy Hertzfeld at the Apple User Group Connection club in 1985
Universities with the most alumni at Apple
PRISM: a clandestine surveillance program under which the NSA collects user data from companies like Facebook and Apple.

A critical moment in the company's history came in December 1979 when Jobs and several Apple employees, including human–computer interface expert Jef Raskin, visited Xerox PARC in to see a demonstration of the Xerox Alto, a computer using a graphical user interface.

Steve Jobs

American entrepreneur, inventor, business magnate, media proprietor, and investor.

Childhood family home of Steve Jobs on Crist Drive in Los Altos, California, that served as the original site of Apple Computer. The home was added to a list of historic Los Altos sites in 2013.
Jobs's 1972 Homestead High School yearbook photo
Jobs (left) with software developer Wendell Brown in 1984
Jobs onstage at Macworld Conference & Expo, San Francisco, January 11, 2005
Jobs and Bill Gates at the fifth D: All Things Digital conference (D5) in May 2007
Jobs demonstrating the iPhone 4 to Russian President Dmitry Medvedev on June 23, 2010
Flags flying at half-staff outside Apple HQ in Cupertino, on the evening of Jobs's death
An Apple II with an external modem, designed primarily by Wozniak
Jobs holding up a MacBook Air at the MacWorld Conference & Expo in 2008
The original iMac, introduced in 1998, was the first consumer-facing Apple product to debut under Jobs's return.
Jobs unveiling the iPhone at MacWorld Conference & Expo on January 9, 2007
Jobs introducing the iPad in San Francisco on January 27, 2010
Jobs's house in Palo Alto
Jobs's house, as viewed from an adjacent sidewalk. Abundant fruit trees are visible next to the house.
Statue of Jobs at Graphisoft Park, Budapest

Jobs began directing the development of the Macintosh in 1981, when he took over the project from early Apple employee Jef Raskin, who conceived the computer (Wozniak, who with Raskin had heavy influence over the program early on in its development, was on leave during this time due to an airplane crash earlier that year ).

Bill Atkinson

American computer engineer and photographer.

He received his undergraduate degree from the University of California, San Diego, where Apple Macintosh developer Jef Raskin was one of his professors.

Stony Brook University

Public research university in Stony Brook, New York.

Coe Hall on the original Oyster Bay campus (used 1957–1964)
The Staller Center for the Arts on the Stony Brook campus
Atrium of the Frank Melville Jr. Memorial Library
Stony Brook University Hospital, located on the east side of campus and attached to the Health Science Center
The Charles B. Wang Center
New East Side Dining facility attached to Chavez and Tubman residence halls
Stony Brook Hospital at the East Campus in 2013
Southampton campus, with its prominent windmill
Homecoming at Kenneth P. LaValle Stadium in 2019
The 2019 Roth Pond Regatta
Seawolves Showcase of notable alumni and championship trophies
The Stony Brook baseball team at the 2012 College World Series
A Stony Brook shuttle bus.
Joe Nathan, six-time MLB All-Star and Hall of Fame candidate
Pat Benatar, four-time Grammy winner and Rock and Roll Hall of Fame nominee
Adrien Brody, youngest Academy Award Best Actor winner

Jef Raskin, 1964, Apple manager and creator of the Macintosh

Zooming user interface

Graphical environment where users can change the scale of the viewed area in order to see more detail or less, and browse through different documents.

Example of a ZUI

More recent ZUI efforts include Archy by the late Jef Raskin, ZVTM developed at INRIA (which uses the Sigma lens technique), and the simple ZUI of the Squeak Smalltalk programming environment and language.

Burrell Smith

American engineer who, while working at Apple Computer, designed the motherboard (digital circuit board) for the original Macintosh.

Bill recommended him to Jef Raskin, who was looking for a hardware engineer to help him with his newly formed Macintosh project.