Drainage basin

watershedbasincatchment areacatchmentwatershedsriver basinbasinsdrainage areariver basinscatchment basin
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.wikipedia
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River

riverineriparianleft bank
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle; water generally collects in a river from precipitation through a drainage basin from surface runoff and other sources such as groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (e.g., from glaciers).

Endorheic basin

endorheicendorheic lakeclosed basin
In a closed drainage basin, or endorheic basin, the water converges to a single point inside the basin, known as a sink, which may be a permanent lake, a dry lake, or a point where surface water is lost underground.
An endorheic basin (also endoreic basin or endorreic basin) is a limited drainage basin that normally retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation.

Drainage divide

watershedwater dividedivide
In North America, the term watershed is commonly used to mean a drainage basin, though in other English-speaking countries, it is used only in its original sense, that of a drainage divide.
A drainage divide, water divide, divide, ridgeline, watershed, water parting or height of land is elevated terrain that separates neighboring drainage basins.

Surface runoff

runoffagricultural runoffrun-off
The drainage basin includes all the surface water from rain runoff, snowmelt, and nearby streams that run downslope towards the shared outlet, as well as the groundwater underneath the earth's surface.
The land area producing runoff that drains to a common point is called a drainage basin.

Snowmelt

snow meltmeltwatermelt snow
The drainage basin includes all the surface water from rain runoff, snowmelt, and nearby streams that run downslope towards the shared outlet, as well as the groundwater underneath the earth's surface.
Predicting snowmelt runoff from a drainage basin may be a part of designing water control projects.

Hydrological code

HUCHydrologic Unit Codehydrologic unit
Drainage basins are similar but not identical to hydrologic units, which are drainage areas delineated so as to nest into a multi-level hierarchical drainage system.
A hydrological code or hydrologic unit code is a sequence of numbers or letters that identify a hydrological feature like a river, river reach, lake, or area like a drainage basin (also called watershed (in North America)) or catchment.

Drainage system (geomorphology)

river systemdrainage systemdendritic
Drainage basins are similar but not identical to hydrologic units, which are drainage areas delineated so as to nest into a multi-level hierarchical drainage system.
In geomorphology, drainage systems, also known as river systems, are the patterns formed by the streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular drainage basin.

Nile

Nile RiverNile ValleyRiver Nile
The five largest river basins (by area), from largest to smallest, are the basins of the Amazon (7M km), the Congo (4M km), the Nile (3.4M km), the Río de la Plata (3.2M km), and the Mississippi (3M km).
The Nile, which is about 6650 km long, is an "international" river as its drainage basin covers eleven countries: Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Republic of the Sudan, and Egypt.

Saskatchewan

SKSaskatchewan, CanadaProvince of Saskatchewan
The lowest point is the shore of Lake Athabasca, at 213 m. The province has 14 major drainage basins made up of various rivers and watersheds draining into the Arctic Ocean, Hudson Bay and the Gulf of Mexico.

Continental Divide of the Americas

Continental DivideGreat DivideContinental Divide of North America
The Continental Divide extends from the Bering Strait to the Strait of Magellan, and separates the watersheds that drain into the Pacific Ocean from those river systems that drain into the Atlantic Ocean (including those that drain into the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea) and, along the northernmost reaches of the Divide, those river systems that drain into the Arctic Ocean.

Minnesota

MNState of MinnesotaMinnesota, USA
In the U.S. state of Minnesota, governmental entities that perform this function are called "watershed districts".
Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed.

Montana

MTState of MontanaMontana, USA
Montana is one of few geographic areas in the world whose rivers form parts of three major watersheds (i.e. where two continental divides intersect).

Indian Ocean

IndianIndoSouthern Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean drainage basin covers 21100000 km2, virtually identical to that of the Pacific Ocean and half that of the Atlantic basin, or 30% of its ocean surface (compared to 15% for the Pacific).

Losing stream

sinking riverinfluent streamdisappearing streams
In a closed drainage basin, or endorheic basin, the water converges to a single point inside the basin, known as a sink, which may be a permanent lake, a dry lake, or a point where surface water is lost underground.

Mississippi River

MississippiMississippi ValleyMississippi Basin
The five largest river basins (by area), from largest to smallest, are the basins of the Amazon (7M km), the Congo (4M km), the Nile (3.4M km), the Río de la Plata (3.2M km), and the Mississippi (3M km).
With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains.

Amazon River

AmazonRiver AmazonUpper Amazon
The five largest river basins (by area), from largest to smallest, are the basins of the Amazon (7M km), the Congo (4M km), the Nile (3.4M km), the Río de la Plata (3.2M km), and the Mississippi (3M km).
The Amazon basin is the largest drainage basin in the world, with an area of approximately 7050000 km2.

Congo River

CongoCongo River BasinRiver Congo
The five largest river basins (by area), from largest to smallest, are the basins of the Amazon (7M km), the Congo (4M km), the Nile (3.4M km), the Río de la Plata (3.2M km), and the Mississippi (3M km).
The Congo's drainage basin covers 4014500 km2, an area larger than India.

Aral Sea

AralLake AralSea of Aral
The largest of these consists of much of the interior of Asia, which drains into the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, and numerous smaller lakes.
The Aral Sea drainage basin encompasses Uzbekistan and parts of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan and Iran.

Ganges

GangaGanges RiverGanga River
The three rivers that drain the most water, from most to least, are the Amazon, Ganga, and Congo rivers.
One result is different ways to determine the river's length, its discharge, and the size of its drainage basin.

Bioregionalism

Bioregional democracybioregionalBioregionalists
Bioregional political organization today includes agreements of states (e.g., international treaties and, within the US, interstate compacts) or other political entities in a particular drainage basin to manage the body or bodies of water into which it drains.
Bioregions are defined through physical and environmental features, including watershed boundaries and soil and terrain characteristics.

Río de la Plata

River PlateRio de la PlataLa Plata
The five largest river basins (by area), from largest to smallest, are the basins of the Amazon (7M km), the Congo (4M km), the Nile (3.4M km), the Río de la Plata (3.2M km), and the Mississippi (3M km).
The Río de la Plata's drainage basin (sometimes called the Platine basin or Platine region) is the 3170000 km2 hydrographical area that drains to the Río de la Plata.

Caspian Sea

CaspianCaspian regionCaspian Sea basin
The largest of these consists of much of the interior of Asia, which drains into the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, and numerous smaller lakes.
The sea's basin (including associated waters such as rivers) has 160 native species and subspecies of fish in more than 60 genera.

Hydrology

hydrologicalhydrologisthydrologic
In hydrology, the drainage basin is a logical unit of focus for studying the movement of water within the hydrological cycle, because the majority of water that discharges from the basin outlet originated as precipitation falling on the basin.
Domains of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage-basin management and water quality, where water plays the central role.

Hudson Bay

Hudson's BayHudsonBaie d'Hudson
For example, the English crown gave the Hudson's Bay Company a monopoly on the fur trade in the entire Hudson Bay basin, an area called Rupert's Land.
The HBC negotiated a trading monopoly from the English crown for the Hudson Bay watershed, called Rupert's Land.

Watershed management

watershedwatershed protectionmanage U.S. watersheds
In North America, this function is referred to as "watershed management".
Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within the watershed boundary.