Drainage basin

watershedbasincatchment areacatchmentwatershedsriver basinbasinsdrainage areacatchment basinwater catchment
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.wikipedia
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River

riversriverineriparian
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle; water generally collects in a river from precipitation through a drainage basin from surface runoff and other sources such as groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (e.g., from glaciers).

Endorheic basin

endorheicendorheic lakeclosed basin
In a closed drainage basin, or endorheic basin, the water converges to a single point inside the basin, known as a sink, which may be a permanent lake, a dry lake, or a point where surface water is lost underground.
An endorheic basin (also endoreic basin or endorreic basin) (from the, éndon, "within" and ῥεῖν, rheîn, "to flow") is a limited drainage basin that normally retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation.

Drainage divide

watershedwater dividedivide
Other terms used interchangeably with drainage basin are catchment area, catchment basin, drainage area, river basin, and water basin. In North America, the term watershed is commonly used to mean a drainage basin, though in other English-speaking countries, it is used only in its original sense, that of a drainage divide.
A drainage divide, water divide, divide, ridgeline, watershed, or water parting is the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins.

Surface runoff

runoffagricultural runoffrun-off
The drainage basin includes all the surface water from rain runoff, snowmelt, and nearby streams that run downslope towards the shared outlet, as well as the groundwater underneath the earth's surface.
A land area which produces runoff that drains to a common point is called a drainage basin.

Snowmelt

snow meltmeltwatermelt snow
The drainage basin includes all the surface water from rain runoff, snowmelt, and nearby streams that run downslope towards the shared outlet, as well as the groundwater underneath the earth's surface.
Predicting snowmelt runoff from a drainage basin may be a part of designing water control projects.

Hydrological code

HUChydrologic unitHydrologic Unit Code
Drainage basins are similar but not identical to hydrologic units, which are drainage areas delineated so as to nest into a multi-level hierarchical drainage system.
A hydrological code or hydrologic unit code is a sequence of numbers or letters that identify a hydrological feature like a river, river reach, lake, or area like a drainage basin (also called watershed (in North America)) or catchment.

Drainage system (geomorphology)

river systemdrainage systemdendritic
Drainage basins are similar but not identical to hydrologic units, which are drainage areas delineated so as to nest into a multi-level hierarchical drainage system.
In geomorphology, drainage systems, also known as river systems, are the patterns formed by the streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular drainage basin.

Nile

Nile RiverNile ValleyRiver Nile
The Mediterranean Sea basin includes much of North Africa, east-central Africa (through the Nile River), Southern, Central, and Eastern Europe, Turkey, and the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon, and Syria. The five largest river basins (by area), from largest to smallest, are the basins of the Amazon (7M km), the Congo (4M km), the Nile (3.4M km), the Río de la Plata (3.2M km), and the Mississippi (3M km).
The Nile, which is about 6650 km long, is an "international" river as its drainage basin covers eleven countries, namely, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Republic of the Sudan and Egypt.

Saskatchewan

SKSASProvince of Saskatchewan
The Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico basin includes most of the U.S. interior between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains, a small part of the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, eastern Central America, the islands of the Caribbean and the Gulf, and a small part of northern South America.
The lowest point is the shore of Lake Athabasca, at 213 m. The province has 14 major drainage basins made up of various rivers and watersheds draining into the Arctic Ocean, Hudson Bay and the Gulf of Mexico.

Continental Divide of the Americas

Continental DivideGreat DivideContinental Divide of North America
The Arctic Ocean drains most of Western and Northern Canada east of the Continental Divide, northern Alaska and parts of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana in the United States, the north shore of the Scandinavian peninsula in Europe, central and northern Russia, and parts of Kazakhstan and Mongolia in Asia, which totals to about 17% of the world's land.
The Continental Divide extends from the Bering Strait to the Strait of Magellan, and separates the watersheds that drain into the Pacific Ocean from those river systems that drain into the Atlantic Ocean (including those that drain into the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea) and, along the northernmost reaches of the Divide, those river systems that drain into the Arctic Ocean.

Minnesota

MNState of MinnesotaMinnesota, USA
The Arctic Ocean drains most of Western and Northern Canada east of the Continental Divide, northern Alaska and parts of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana in the United States, the north shore of the Scandinavian peninsula in Europe, central and northern Russia, and parts of Kazakhstan and Mongolia in Asia, which totals to about 17% of the world's land.
Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed.

Losing stream

sinking riverinfluent streamdisappearing streams
In a closed drainage basin, or endorheic basin, the water converges to a single point inside the basin, known as a sink, which may be a permanent lake, a dry lake, or a point where surface water is lost underground.
The Lost River of New Hampshire is a 6.5 mi long stream located in the White Mountains of New Hampshire in the United States. It is a tributary of the Pemigewasset River, part of the Merrimack River watershed. The Lost River begins in Kinsman Notch, one of the major passes through the White Mountains. As it flows through the notch, it passes through Lost River Gorge, an area where enormous boulders falling off the flanking walls of the notch at the close of the last Ice Age have covered the river, creating a network of boulder caves.

Mississippi River

MississippiMississippi ValleyMississippi River Valley
The five largest river basins (by area), from largest to smallest, are the basins of the Amazon (7M km), the Congo (4M km), the Nile (3.4M km), the Río de la Plata (3.2M km), and the Mississippi (3M km).
With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian Mountains.

Amazon River

AmazonAmazon River Basinupper Amazon
The five largest river basins (by area), from largest to smallest, are the basins of the Amazon (7M km), the Congo (4M km), the Nile (3.4M km), the Río de la Plata (3.2M km), and the Mississippi (3M km).
The Amazon basin is the largest drainage basin in the world, with an area of approximately 7050000 km2.

Aral Sea

AralArakAral Sea Drainages
The largest of these consists of much of the interior of Asia, which drains into the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, and numerous smaller lakes.
The Aral Sea drainage basin encompasses Uzbekistan and parts of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan and Iran.

Congo River

CongoCongo BasinZaire
The five largest river basins (by area), from largest to smallest, are the basins of the Amazon (7M km), the Congo (4M km), the Nile (3.4M km), the Río de la Plata (3.2M km), and the Mississippi (3M km).
The Congo's drainage basin covers 4014500 km2, an area larger than India.

Ganges

GangaGanges RiverGanga river
The three rivers that drain the most water, from most to least, are the Amazon, Ganga, and Congo rivers.
One result is different ways to determine the river's length, its discharge, and the size of its drainage basin.

Río de la Plata

River PlateLa PlataRio de la Plata
The five largest river basins (by area), from largest to smallest, are the basins of the Amazon (7M km), the Congo (4M km), the Nile (3.4M km), the Río de la Plata (3.2M km), and the Mississippi (3M km).
The Río de la Plata's drainage basin (sometimes called the Platine basin or Platine region) is the 3170000 km2 hydrographical area that drains to the Río de la Plata.

Bioregionalism

bioregional democracybioregionalBioregionalists
Bioregional political organization today includes agreements of states (e.g., international treaties and, within the U.S.A., interstate compacts) or other political entities in a particular drainage basin to manage the body or bodies of water into which it drains.
Bioregions are defined through physical and environmental features, including watershed boundaries and soil and terrain characteristics.

Caspian Sea

CaspianCaspian regionCaspian Basin
The largest of these consists of much of the interior of Asia, which drains into the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, and numerous smaller lakes.
The sea's basin (including associated waters such as rivers) has 160 native species and subspecies of fish in more than 60 genera.

Hydrology

hydrologicalhydrologisthydrologic
In hydrology, the drainage basin is a logical unit of focus for studying the movement of water within the hydrological cycle, because the majority of water that discharges from the basin outlet originated as precipitation falling on the basin.
Domains of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage-basin management and water quality, where water plays the central role.

Hudson Bay

Hudson's BayHudson
For example, the English crown gave the Hudson's Bay Company a monopoly on the fur trade in the entire Hudson Bay basin, an area called Rupert's Land.
The HBC negotiated a trading monopoly from the English crown for the Hudson Bay watershed, called Rupert's Land.

Watershed management

watershed protectionwatershedmanage U.S. watersheds
In North America, this function is referred to as "watershed management".
Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within the watershed boundary.

Conservation authority (Ontario, Canada)

conservation authorityconservation authoritiesConservation Areas
Comparable community groups based in Ontario, Canada, are called conservation authorities.
Conservation authorities represent groupings of municipalities on a watershed basis and work in partnership with other agencies to carry out natural resource management activities within their respective watersheds, on behalf of their member municipalities and the Province of Ontario.

Northern Canada

Canadian Arcticnorthern CanadianArctic
The Arctic Ocean drains most of Western and Northern Canada east of the Continental Divide, northern Alaska and parts of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana in the United States, the north shore of the Scandinavian peninsula in Europe, central and northern Russia, and parts of Kazakhstan and Mongolia in Asia, which totals to about 17% of the world's land.
The Arctic watershed (or drainage basin) drains northern parts of Manitoba, Alberta and British Columbia, most of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut as well as parts of Yukon into the Arctic Ocean, including the Beaufort Sea and Baffin Bay.