Draw (chess)

drawdrawsdrewdrawndrawingdrawishdraw by insufficient forcedraw in chessdraws are commontheoretical draw
In chess, a draw is the result of a game ending in a tie.wikipedia
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Chess

chess playerchess gamewestern chess
In chess, a draw is the result of a game ending in a tie.
There are also several ways that a game can end in a draw.

Stalemate

stalematingimpasseMilitary stalemate
Draws are codified by various rules of chess including stalemate (when the player to move is not in check but has no legal move), threefold repetition (when the same position occurs three times with the same player to move), and the fifty-move rule (when the last fifty successive moves made by both players contain no or pawn move).
The rules of chess provide that when stalemate occurs, the game ends as a draw.

Rules of chess

chessrulesstandard chess
Draws are codified by various rules of chess including stalemate (when the player to move is not in check but has no legal move), threefold repetition (when the same position occurs three times with the same player to move), and the fifty-move rule (when the last fifty successive moves made by both players contain no or pawn move). The offer of a draw should be recorded by each player in their using the symbol as per Appendix C.12 of FIDE Laws of Chess.
A game can also end in a draw in several ways.

Threefold repetition

draw by repetitionmove repetitionrepeat moves
Draws are codified by various rules of chess including stalemate (when the player to move is not in check but has no legal move), threefold repetition (when the same position occurs three times with the same player to move), and the fifty-move rule (when the last fifty successive moves made by both players contain no or pawn move). Threefold repetition – if an identical position has occurred at least three times during the course of the game with the same player to move each time, and is the current position on the board or will occur after the player on turn makes his move, the player on move may claim a draw (to the ). In such a case the draw is not automatic - a player must claim it if he wants the draw. When the position will occur for the third time after the player's intended next move, he writes the move on his but does not make the move on the board and claims the draw. Article 9.2 states that a position is considered identical to another if the same player is on move, the same types of pieces of the same colors occupy the same squares, and the same moves are available to each player; in particular, each player has the same castling and en passant capturing rights. (A player may lose his right to castle; and an en passant capture is available only at the first opportunity.) If the claim is not made on the move in which the repetition occurs, the player forfeits the right to make the claim. Of course, the opportunity may present itself again.
In chess and some other abstract strategy games, the threefold repetition rule (also known as repetition of position) states that a player can claim a draw if the same position occurs three times, or will occur after their next move, with the same player to move.

Fifty-move rule

50-move rule50-move draw50-move draw rule
Draws are codified by various rules of chess including stalemate (when the player to move is not in check but has no legal move), threefold repetition (when the same position occurs three times with the same player to move), and the fifty-move rule (when the last fifty successive moves made by both players contain no or pawn move).
The fifty-move rule in chess states that a player can claim a draw if no has been made and no pawn has been moved in the last fifty moves (for this purpose a "move" consists of a player completing their turn followed by the opponent completing their turn).

Draw by agreement

agreed to a drawdrawagree to a draw
Unless specific tournament rules forbid it, players may agree to a draw at any time.
In chess, a draw by (mutual) agreement is the outcome of a game due to the agreement of both players to a draw.

Checkmate

matecheckmatingmates
Under the standard FIDE rules, a draw also occurs "in dead position", when no sequence of legal moves can lead to checkmate, most commonly when neither player has sufficient to checkmate the opponent.
If a player is not in check but has no legal move, then it is stalemate, and the game immediately ends in a draw.

Perpetual check

perpetually checks
It is popularly considered that perpetual check – where one player gives a series of checks from which the other player cannot escape – is a draw, but in fact there is no longer a specific rule for this in the laws of chess, because any perpetual check situation will eventually be claimable as a draw under the threefold repetition rule or by the fifty-move rule, or (more likely) by agreement.
In the game of chess, perpetual check is a situation in which one player can a draw by an unending series of checks.

Fast chess

rapid chessrapidblitz
Although these are the laws as laid down by FIDE and, as such, are used at almost all top-level tournaments, at lower levels different rules may operate, particularly with regard to rapid play finish provisions.
A game guaranteed to produce a decisive result, because Black has draw odds (that is, for Black, a draw is equal to a victory).

Pawn (chess)

pawnpawnschess pawn
Draws are codified by various rules of chess including stalemate (when the player to move is not in check but has no legal move), threefold repetition (when the same position occurs three times with the same player to move), and the fifty-move rule (when the last fifty successive moves made by both players contain no or pawn move).
This causes some positions to be draws that would otherwise be wins.

Check (chess)

checkcheckschecking
Draws are codified by various rules of chess including stalemate (when the player to move is not in check but has no legal move), threefold repetition (when the same position occurs three times with the same player to move), and the fifty-move rule (when the last fifty successive moves made by both players contain no or pawn move).
Repetitive checking to prevent losing a game going poorly (i.e. to draw the game by perpetual check).

Castling

castlecastledcastles
Threefold repetition – if an identical position has occurred at least three times during the course of the game with the same player to move each time, and is the current position on the board or will occur after the player on turn makes his move, the player on move may claim a draw (to the ). In such a case the draw is not automatic - a player must claim it if he wants the draw. When the position will occur for the third time after the player's intended next move, he writes the move on his but does not make the move on the board and claims the draw. Article 9.2 states that a position is considered identical to another if the same player is on move, the same types of pieces of the same colors occupy the same squares, and the same moves are available to each player; in particular, each player has the same castling and en passant capturing rights. (A player may lose his right to castle; and an en passant capture is available only at the first opportunity.) If the claim is not made on the move in which the repetition occurs, the player forfeits the right to make the claim. Of course, the opportunity may present itself again.
The right to castle must be the same in all three positions for a valid draw claim under the threefold repetition rule.

Bishop (chess)

bishopbishopschess bishop
king and bishop versus king
An endgame in which each player has only one bishop, one controlling the dark squares and the other the light, will often result in a draw even if one player has a pawn or sometimes two more than the other.

Two knights endgame

Troitsky linetwo knightstwo knights versus a pawn
If only one player has exceeded the time limit, but the other player does not have (theoretically) sufficient mating material, the game is still a draw. Law 6.9 of the FIDE Laws of Chess states that: "If a player does not complete the prescribed number of moves in the allotted time, the game is lost by the player. However, the game is drawn if the position is such that the opponent cannot checkmate the player's king by any possible series of legal moves, even with the most unskilled counterplay." For example, a player who runs out of time with a sole king versus king and bishop does not lose the game. It is still possible to lose on time in positions where mate is extremely unlikely but not theoretically impossible, as with king and bishop versus king and knight. (Under USCF rules, king and bishop, king and knight, or king and 2 knights with no pawns on the board is not considered sufficient mating material, unless the opponent has a forced win, even though it's theoretically possible to mate (but extremely unlikely to happen) in situations such as K+B vs. K+N).
Unlike some other theoretically drawn endgames, such as a rook and bishop versus rook, the defender has an easy task in all endings with two knights versus a lone king.

Fortress (chess)

fortressfortressesdefense perimeter
fortress
In chess, the fortress is an endgame drawing technique in which the side behind in sets up a zone of protection that the opponent cannot penetrate.

King (chess)

kingkingschess king
king versus king
If this happens, the king is said to have been stalemated and the game ends in a draw.

Elo rating system

ratingElo ratingElo
In chess games played at the top level, a draw is the most common outcome of a game: of around 22,000 games published in The Week in Chess played between 1999 and 2002 by players with a FIDE Elo rating of 2500 or above, 55 percent were draws.
Elo ratings have also been applied to games without the possibility of draws, and to games in which the result can also have a quantity (small/big margin) in addition to the quality (win/loss).

Knight (chess)

knightknightsKnight's Move
king and knight versus king
At the end of the game, if one side has only a king and a knight while the other side has only a king, the game is a draw since a checkmate is impossible.

En passant

Threefold repetition – if an identical position has occurred at least three times during the course of the game with the same player to move each time, and is the current position on the board or will occur after the player on turn makes his move, the player on move may claim a draw (to the ). In such a case the draw is not automatic - a player must claim it if he wants the draw. When the position will occur for the third time after the player's intended next move, he writes the move on his but does not make the move on the board and claims the draw. Article 9.2 states that a position is considered identical to another if the same player is on move, the same types of pieces of the same colors occupy the same squares, and the same moves are available to each player; in particular, each player has the same castling and en passant capturing rights. (A player may lose his right to castle; and an en passant capture is available only at the first opportunity.) If the claim is not made on the move in which the repetition occurs, the player forfeits the right to make the claim. Of course, the opportunity may present itself again.
The possibility of an en passant capture is relevant to the claim of a draw by threefold repetition.

Rook and bishop versus rook endgame

Cochrane Defenserook and bishop versus rookSzen position
For instance, under that criterion the rook and bishop versus rook endgame is usually a theoretical draw or "book draw", but the side with the bishop often wins in practice.
It is generally a theoretical draw, but the rook and bishop have good winning chances in practice because the defense is difficult.

Time control

byo-yomibyoyomibyōyomi
In games played under time control, a draw may result under additional conditions.

Chess clock

game clockclockchess clocks
An offer of a draw should be made after a player makes a move but before he presses his game clock.

FIDE

World Chess FederationFédération Internationale des ÉchecsAgon
If only one player has exceeded the time limit, but the other player does not have (theoretically) sufficient mating material, the game is still a draw. Law 6.9 of the FIDE Laws of Chess states that: "If a player does not complete the prescribed number of moves in the allotted time, the game is lost by the player. However, the game is drawn if the position is such that the opponent cannot checkmate the player's king by any possible series of legal moves, even with the most unskilled counterplay." For example, a player who runs out of time with a sole king versus king and bishop does not lose the game. It is still possible to lose on time in positions where mate is extremely unlikely but not theoretically impossible, as with king and bishop versus king and knight. (Under USCF rules, king and bishop, king and knight, or king and 2 knights with no pawns on the board is not considered sufficient mating material, unless the opponent has a forced win, even though it's theoretically possible to mate (but extremely unlikely to happen) in situations such as K+B vs. K+N). In chess games played at the top level, a draw is the most common outcome of a game: of around 22,000 games published in The Week in Chess played between 1999 and 2002 by players with a FIDE Elo rating of 2500 or above, 55 percent were draws. The offer of a draw should be recorded by each player in their using the symbol as per Appendix C.12 of FIDE Laws of Chess.

United States Chess Federation

USCFU.S. Chess FederationUS Chess Federation
If only one player has exceeded the time limit, but the other player does not have (theoretically) sufficient mating material, the game is still a draw. Law 6.9 of the FIDE Laws of Chess states that: "If a player does not complete the prescribed number of moves in the allotted time, the game is lost by the player. However, the game is drawn if the position is such that the opponent cannot checkmate the player's king by any possible series of legal moves, even with the most unskilled counterplay." For example, a player who runs out of time with a sole king versus king and bishop does not lose the game. It is still possible to lose on time in positions where mate is extremely unlikely but not theoretically impossible, as with king and bishop versus king and knight. (Under USCF rules, king and bishop, king and knight, or king and 2 knights with no pawns on the board is not considered sufficient mating material, unless the opponent has a forced win, even though it's theoretically possible to mate (but extremely unlikely to happen) in situations such as K+B vs. K+N).