Drought

droughtsdrought reliefdrymeteorological droughtdry spelldrought conditionsdrought protectionseasonal droughtsdry conditionsWater shortages
A drought or drouth is an event of prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric (below-average precipitation), surface water or ground water.wikipedia
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Drought tolerance

drought tolerantdrought-tolerantdrought resistant
Many plant species, such as those in the family Cactaceae (or cacti), have drought tolerance adaptations like reduced leaf area and waxy cuticles to enhance their ability to tolerate drought.
Drought tolerance is the ability to which a plant maintains its biomass production during arid or drought conditions.

Cactus

Cactaceaecacticactus family
Many plant species, such as those in the family Cactaceae (or cacti), have drought tolerance adaptations like reduced leaf area and waxy cuticles to enhance their ability to tolerate drought.
Cactus stems are often ribbed or fluted, which allows them to expand and contract easily for quick water absorption after rain, followed by long drought periods.

Groundwater

ground waterunderground waterpore water
A drought or drouth is an event of prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric (below-average precipitation), surface water or ground water.
This makes it an important resource that can act as a natural storage that can buffer against shortages of surface water, as in during times of drought.

Reservoir

artificial lakereservoirsartificial
The use of bank-side reservoirs also allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are very low due to drought.

Natural disaster

natural disastersnaturaldisaster
Drought affect food production and human society, so they are considered a disaster, of natural, supernatural or human cause (which itself could be supernatural causes, malediction, sin, ...).
Well-known historical droughts include the 1997–2009 Millennium Drought in Australia led to a water supply crisis across much of the country.

Global warming

climate changeglobal climate changeanthropogenic climate change
Activities resulting in global climate change are expected to trigger droughts with a substantial impact on agriculture throughout the world, and especially in developing nations.
Overall, higher temperatures bring more rain and snowfall, but for some regions droughts and wildfires increase instead.

Lake Balkhash

Lake BalkashBalkhashBalkhash Lake
In the early 20th century and between 1958 and 1969, the area of the lake increased to ~18,000 km 2, and during the droughts, for example in the late 1900s, 1930s and 1940s, the lake shrank to ~16,000 km 2 with the water level fluctuations of about 3 m. In 1946, the area was 15,730 km 2 and the lake volume was 82.7 km 3.

Dust Bowl

DustbowlDirty Thirtiesdust storms
The Dust Bowl was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the American and Canadian prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent the aeolian processes (wind erosion) caused the phenomenon.

Climate change and agriculture

agriculturefertilisation effectfood production
Activities resulting in global climate change are expected to trigger droughts with a substantial impact on agriculture throughout the world, and especially in developing nations.
For instance, Evan Fraser, a geographer at the University of Guelph in Ontario Canada, has conducted a number of studies that show that the socio-economic context of farming may play a huge role in determining whether a drought has a major, or an insignificant impact on crop production.

Queensland

Queensland, AustraliaQLDState of Queensland
Drier-than-normal conditions are also in general observed in Queensland, inland Victoria, inland New South Wales, and eastern Tasmania from June to August.
Droughts and bushfires can also occur; however, the latter are generally less severe than those that occur in southern states.

Precipitation

rainfallhydrometeorannual precipitation
A drought or drouth is an event of prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric (below-average precipitation), surface water or ground water.
Drought can kill crops and increase erosion, while overly wet weather can cause harmful fungus growth.

Intertropical Convergence Zone

doldrumsITCZInter-Tropical Convergence Zone
Within the tropics, distinct, wet and dry seasons emerge due to the movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone or Monsoon trough.
Longer term changes in the intertropical convergence zone can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas.

Dust storm

sandstormsandstormsdust storms
Drought and wind contribute to the emergence of dust storms, as do poor farming and grazing practices by exposing the dust and sand to the wind.

Famine

faminesfood shortagesfood crisis
This coincided with drought associated with an el Nino oscillation, human epidemics of smallpox, and in several countries, intense war.

Developing country

developing countriesdeveloping worlddeveloping nations
Activities resulting in global climate change are expected to trigger droughts with a substantial impact on agriculture throughout the world, and especially in developing nations.
The effects of global warming such as extreme weather events, droughts, floods, biodiversity loss, disease and sea level rise are dangerous for humans and the environment.

Wildfire

forest fireforest fireswildfires
Direct effects of El Niño resulting in drier conditions occur in parts of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia, increasing bush fires, worsening haze, and decreasing air quality dramatically.
Heat waves, droughts, climate variability such as El Niño, and regional weather patterns such as high-pressure ridges can increase the risk and alter the behavior of wildfires dramatically.

Soil

soilsdirtsoil moisture
It is a common misconception that droughts cause desertification.

Ghost town

ghost townsabandonedabandoned town
Australian environmentalist Tim Flannery, predicted that unless it made drastic changes, Perth in Western Australia could become the world's first ghost metropolis, an abandoned city with no more water to sustain its population.
A town often becomes a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, or due to natural or human-caused disasters such as floods, prolonged droughts, government actions, uncontrolled lawlessness, war, pollution, or nuclear disasters.

Great Plains

PlainsSouthern PlainsNorthern Plains
For example, in the Great Plains, it is estimated that soil loss due to wind erosion can be as much as 6100 times greater in drought years than in wet years.
The region (especially the High Plains) is periodically subjected to extended periods of drought; high winds in the region may then generate devastating dust storms.

2011 East Africa drought

drought2011 drought2011 Eastern Africa drought
Recurring droughts leading to desertification in East Africa have created grave ecological catastrophes, prompting food shortages in 1984–85, 2006 and 2011.
Between July 2011 and mid-2012, a severe drought affected the entire East African region.

1983–1985 famine in Ethiopia

1983–85 famine in EthiopiaEthiopian faminefamine in Ethiopia
Recurring droughts leading to desertification in East Africa have created grave ecological catastrophes, prompting food shortages in 1984–85, 2006 and 2011.
The famine of 1983–85 is most often ascribed to drought and climatic phenomena.

Outdoor water-use restriction

water restrictionshosepipe banwater rationing
Such a ban is usually enacted during droughts, to preserve water for essential uses such as drinking and flushing toilets, as well as for firefighting.

Xeriscaping

drought tolerantxeriscapedrought-tolerant
In some areas, terms as water-conserving landscapes, drought-tolerant landscaping, and smart scaping are used instead.

Nomad

nomadicnomadssemi-nomadic
The Darfur conflict in Sudan, also affecting Chad, was fueled by decades of drought; combination of drought, desertification and overpopulation are among the causes of the Darfur conflict, because the Arab Baggara nomads searching for water have to take their livestock further south, to land mainly occupied by non-Arab farming people.
The severe drought had destroyed 80% of the livestock in some areas.

2006 Horn of Africa food crisis

2006Drought conditionssevere drought
Recurring droughts leading to desertification in East Africa have created grave ecological catastrophes, prompting food shortages in 1984–85, 2006 and 2011.
The United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimated on January 6, 2006, that more than 11 million people in these countries may be affected by an impending widespread famine, largely attributed to a severe drought, and exacerbated by military conflicts in the region.