Diagram of a typical drupe (peach), showing both fruit and seed
Longitudinal section of a female flower of a squash plant (courgette), showing the ovary, ovules, pistil and petals
The development sequence of a typical drupe, a smooth-skinned (nectarine) type of peach (Prunus persica) over a 7 1⁄2-month period, from bud formation in early winter to fruit ripening in midsummer
Diagram of a typical drupe (peach), showing both fruit and seed
Assorted drupes
A schematic picture of an orange hesperidium
The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit)
A segment of an orange that has been opened to show the pulp (juice vesicles) of the endocarp
'Elena', a freestone prune plum
Almond endocarp
The pit of a nectarine
Unripe drupes of black pepper
'Black Butte' blackberry, a bramble fruit of aggregated drupelets
A ripe areca nut
Ginkgo "fruits", often noted as drupe-like

In botany, a drupe (or stone fruit) is an indehiscent fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp, or skin, and mesocarp, or flesh) surrounds a single shell (the pit, stone, or pyrena) of hardened endocarp with a seed (kernel) inside.

- Drupe

The types of fleshy fruits are berries, pomes, and drupes.

- Fruit anatomy
Diagram of a typical drupe (peach), showing both fruit and seed

9 related topics

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An apple is a pome fruit. The parts of the fruit are labelled.

Pome

Type of fruit produced by flowering plants in the subtribe Malinae of the family Rosaceae.

Type of fruit produced by flowering plants in the subtribe Malinae of the family Rosaceae.

An apple is a pome fruit. The parts of the fruit are labelled.
Pomes of common medlar, Mespilus germanica

Although the epicarp, mesocarp, and endocarp of some other fruit types look very much like the skin, flesh, and core respectively of a pome, they are parts of the carpel (see diagram).

Pome-type fruit with stony rather than leathery endocarp may be called a polypyrenous drupe.

Seeds of various plants. Row 1: poppy, red pepper, strawberry, apple tree, blackberry, rice, carum, Row 2: mustard, eggplant, physalis, grapes, raspberries, red rice, patchouli, Row 3: figs, lycium barbarum, beets, blueberries, golden kiwifruit, rosehip, basil, Row 4: pink pepper, tomato, radish, carrot, matthiola, dill, coriander, Row 5: black pepper, white cabbage, napa cabbage, seabuckthorn, parsley, dandelion, capsella bursa-pastoris, Row 6: cauliflower, radish, kiwifruit, grenadilla, passion fruit, melissa, tagetes erecta.

Seed

Embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering, along with a food reserve.

Embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering, along with a food reserve.

Seeds of various plants. Row 1: poppy, red pepper, strawberry, apple tree, blackberry, rice, carum, Row 2: mustard, eggplant, physalis, grapes, raspberries, red rice, patchouli, Row 3: figs, lycium barbarum, beets, blueberries, golden kiwifruit, rosehip, basil, Row 4: pink pepper, tomato, radish, carrot, matthiola, dill, coriander, Row 5: black pepper, white cabbage, napa cabbage, seabuckthorn, parsley, dandelion, capsella bursa-pastoris, Row 6: cauliflower, radish, kiwifruit, grenadilla, passion fruit, melissa, tagetes erecta.
Plant ovules: Gymnosperm ovule on left, angiosperm ovule (inside ovary) on right
The inside of a Ginkgo seed, showing a well-developed embryo, nutritive tissue (megagametophyte), and a bit of the surrounding seed coat
The parts of an avocado seed (a dicot), showing the seed coat and embryo
Diagram of the internal structure of a dicot seed and embryo: (a) seed coat, (b) endosperm, (c) cotyledon, (d) hypocotyl
Diagram of a generalized dicot seed (1) versus a generalized monocot seed (2). A. Scutellum B. Cotyledon C. Hilum D. Plumule E. Radicle F. Endosperm
Comparison of monocotyledons and dicotyledons
Seed coat of pomegranate
A collection of various vegetable and herb seeds
Dandelion seeds are contained within achenes, which can be carried long distances by the wind.
The seed pod of milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)
Germinating sunflower seedlings
Microbial transmission from seed to seedling
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean or green bean) seeds are diverse in size, shape, and color.
The massive fruit of the coco de mer

Different groups of plants have other modifications, the so-called stone fruits (such as the peach) have a hardened fruit layer (the endocarp) fused to and surrounding the actual seed.

Diagram of a typical drupe, in this case a peach, illustrating the layers of both the fruit and the seed; the pyrene is the hardened endocarp which encloses the seed

Pyrena

Diagram of a typical drupe, in this case a peach, illustrating the layers of both the fruit and the seed; the pyrene is the hardened endocarp which encloses the seed

A pyrena or pyrene (commonly called a "pit" or "stone") is the fruitstone within a drupe or drupelet produced by the ossification of the endocarp or lining of the fruit.

It consists of a hard endocarp tissue surrounding one or more seeds (also called the "kernel").

Prunus

Genus of trees and shrubs, which includes the fruits plums, cherries, peaches, nectarines, apricots, and almonds.

Genus of trees and shrubs, which includes the fruits plums, cherries, peaches, nectarines, apricots, and almonds.

Japanese cherry (Prunus serrulata) blossoms
Tibetan cherry (Prunus serrula) bark
Black cherry (Prunus serotina) in bloom
The development sequence of a nectarine (P. persica) over a 7.5-month period, from bud formation in early winter to fruit ripening in midsummer
Cherries are prone to gummosis.

Prunus fruit are drupes, or stone fruits.

The fleshy mesocarp surrounding the endocarp is edible while the endocarp itself forms a hard, inedible shell called the pyrena ("stone" or "pit").

Peach

Deciduous tree first domesticated and cultivated in Zhejiang province of Eastern China.

Deciduous tree first domesticated and cultivated in Zhejiang province of Eastern China.

Peach flowers
Dried date, peach, apricot, and stones from Lahun, Fayum, Egypt, Late Middle Kingdom, Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London
A peach flower with a bee pollinating it
White peach of the clingstone variety
White nectarines, whole and cut open
The developmental sequence of a nectarine over a 7 1⁄2-month period, from bud formation in early winter to fruit ripening in midsummer
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, A Still Life Painting of Peaches, 1881–82
A peach tree in blossom
Peach blossoms
Incipient fruit development
Peach (cultivar 'Berry') – watercolour, 1895
Claude Monet, A Jar of Peaches, {{circa|1866}}
Girl with Peaches
Still Life Basket of Peaches
Portrait of Isabella and John Stewart
Prunus persica - MHNT
Momotarō emerges from a peach.

The peach is classified with the almond in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated seed shell (endocarp).

Peaches, along with cherries, plums, and apricots, are stone fruits (drupes).

Blackthorn, Prunus spinosa

Berry

Small, pulpy, and often edible fruit.

Small, pulpy, and often edible fruit.

Blackthorn, Prunus spinosa
Rubus berries have been cultivated by crossbreeding to create a diverse range of brambleberries with desirable traits
Cloudberry, common flowering plant in the cool temperate regions, alpine and arctic tundra and boreal forest.
Example of color contrast in (mostly inedible) wild berries
Mixed frozen berries
A slice of blueberry pie
Elderberry jam on bread
Various dried berries
Japanese barberries
Bilberry
Red currants
Honeysuckle
Gooseberries
Cloudberry
Highbush blueberries
Blackberries

In common usage, the term "berry" differs from the scientific or botanical definition of a fruit produced from the ovary of a single flower in which the outer layer of the ovary wall develops into an edible fleshy portion (pericarp).

The fruits of blackthorn may be called "sloe berries", but botanically are small stone fruits or drupes, like plums or apricots.

Chestnuts are both botanical and culinary nuts.

Nut (fruit)

Fruit consisting of a hard or tough nutshell protecting a kernel which is usually edible.

Fruit consisting of a hard or tough nutshell protecting a kernel which is usually edible.

Chestnuts are both botanical and culinary nuts.
Some common "culinary nuts": hazelnuts, which are also botanical nuts; Brazil nuts, which are not botanical nuts, but rather the seeds of a capsule; and walnuts, pecans, and almonds (which are not botanical nuts, but rather the seeds of drupes)
Nuts being sold in a market
Raw mixed nuts, sold as a snack food.

Also widely known as nuts are dry drupes, which include pecans (Carya illinoensis), almonds (Prunus amygdalus), macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia), candlenut (Aleurites moluccanus), water caltrop (Trapa bicornis) and walnuts (Juglans regia).

A drupe is an indehiscent fruit which has an outer fleshy part consisting of the exocarp, or skin, and mesocarp, or flesh, which surround a single pit or stone, the endocarp with a seed (kernel) inside.

Culinary fruits

Fruit

Seed-bearing structure in flowering plants that is formed from the ovary after flowering.

Seed-bearing structure in flowering plants that is formed from the ovary after flowering.

Culinary fruits
Caraway fruits. A common mistake is to call these and similar ones "seeds".
Pomegranate display of the exocarp (right) and seeds and edible sarcotesta (left)
An arrangement of fruits commonly thought of as culinary vegetables, including corn (maize), tomatoes, and various squash
The development sequence of a typical drupe, the nectarine (Prunus persica) over a 7.5 month period, from bud formation in early winter to fruit ripening in midsummer (see [[:File:Nectarine Fruit Development.jpg|image page]] for further information)
The parts of a flower, showing the stigma-style-ovary system.
An apple is a simple fleshy fruit. Key parts are the epicarp, or exocarp, or outer skin, (not labelled); and the mezocarp and endocarp (labelled).
Insertion point: There are 3 positions of insertion of the ovary at the base of a flower: I superior; II half-inferior; III inferior. The 'insertion point' is where the androecium parts (a), the petals (p), and the sepals (s) all converge and attach to the receptacle (r). (Ovary= gynoecium (g).)
In the noni, flowers are produced in time-sequence along the stem. It is possible to see a progression of flowering, fruit development, and fruit ripening.
Dewberry flowers. Note the multiple pistils, each of which will produce a drupelet. Each flower will become a blackberry-like aggregate fruit.
Dewberry fruit
A dry simple fruit: milkweed (Asclepias syriaca); dehiscence of the follicular fruit reveals seeds within.
Fruits of four different banana cultivars (Bananas are berries.)
Strawberry, showing achenes attached to surface. Botanically, strawberries are not berries; they are classified as an aggregate accessory fruit.
Flower of Magnolia × wieseneri showing the many pistils making up the gynoecium in the middle of the flower. The fruit of this flower is an aggregation of follicles.
Detail of the raspberry flower: there is a clustering of pistils at the center of the flower. (A pistil consists of stigma, style, and ovary.) The stigma is the apical (at the apex) nodule that receives pollen; the style is the stem-like column that extends down to the ovary, which is the basal part that contains the seed-forming ovule.
Lilium unripe capsule fruit; an aggregate fruit.
The fruit of a pineapple includes tissue from the sepals as well as the pistils of many flowers. It is a multiple-accessory fruit.
Picking blackberries in Oklahoma
Comparing fresh fruits for fiber, potassium (K), and vitamin C. Each disk-point refers to a 100 g serving of the fresh fruit named. The size of the disk represents the amount of fiber (as percentage of the recommended daily allowance, RDA) in a serving of fruit (see key at upper right). The amount of vitamin C (as percent RDA) is plotted on the x–axis and the amount of potassium (K), in mg on the y–axis. + Bananas are high in value for fiber and potassium, and oranges for fiber and vitamin C. (Apricots are highest in potassium; strawberries are rich in vitamin C.) Watermelon, providing low levels of both K and vitamin C and almost no fiber, is of least value for the three nutrients together.
Porcelain vine is usually planted for its showy, colourful berries.

As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy (as in berries or drupes), or it may form a hard outer covering (as in nuts).

Typically, the entire outer layer of the ovary wall ripens into a potentially edible pericarp.

Pecan

Species of hickory native to the southern United States and northern Mexico in the region of the Mississippi River.

Species of hickory native to the southern United States and northern Mexico in the region of the Mississippi River.

An old-growth pecan tree
A gigantic pecan tree in Oklahoma
Pecan trees being irrigated in Anthony, New Mexico
A cluster of pecan fruit is exposed as hulls dry out and split open
Pecan sprouting in moist wood-chip mulch in Eastern Oklahoma
Bud
Immature pecan fruits
Ripe pecan nuts on tree
Carya illinoinensis, MHNT
Shelled and unshelled pecans
Pecan halves
Pecan pie
thumb|Pecan tree in Oklahoma loaded with fruits

A pecan, like the fruit of all other members of the hickory genus, is not truly a nut, but is technically a drupe, a fruit with a single stone or pit, surrounded by a husk.

The husks are produced from the exocarp tissue of the flower, while the part known as the nut develops from the endocarp and contains the seed.