A report on Drupe and Nut (fruit)

Diagram of a typical drupe (peach), showing both fruit and seed
Chestnuts are both botanical and culinary nuts.
The development sequence of a typical drupe, a smooth-skinned (nectarine) type of peach (Prunus persica) over a 7 1⁄2-month period, from bud formation in early winter to fruit ripening in midsummer
Some common "culinary nuts": hazelnuts, which are also botanical nuts; Brazil nuts, which are not botanical nuts, but rather the seeds of a capsule; and walnuts, pecans, and almonds (which are not botanical nuts, but rather the seeds of drupes)
Assorted drupes
Nuts being sold in a market
The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit)
Raw mixed nuts, sold as a snack food.
'Elena', a freestone prune plum
The pit of a nectarine
Unripe drupes of black pepper
'Black Butte' blackberry, a bramble fruit of aggregated drupelets
A ripe areca nut
Ginkgo "fruits", often noted as drupe-like

Also widely known as nuts are dry drupes, which include pecans (Carya illinoensis), almonds (Prunus amygdalus), macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia), candlenut (Aleurites moluccanus), water caltrop (Trapa bicornis) and walnuts (Juglans regia).

- Nut (fruit)

Tryma is a specialized term for such nut-like drupes that are difficult to categorize.

- Drupe
Diagram of a typical drupe (peach), showing both fruit and seed

9 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Seeds of various plants. Row 1: poppy, red pepper, strawberry, apple tree, blackberry, rice, carum, Row 2: mustard, eggplant, physalis, grapes, raspberries, red rice, patchouli, Row 3: figs, lycium barbarum, beets, blueberries, golden kiwifruit, rosehip, basil, Row 4: pink pepper, tomato, radish, carrot, matthiola, dill, coriander, Row 5: black pepper, white cabbage, napa cabbage, seabuckthorn, parsley, dandelion, capsella bursa-pastoris, Row 6: cauliflower, radish, kiwifruit, grenadilla, passion fruit, melissa, tagetes erecta.

Seed

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Embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering, along with a food reserve.

Embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering, along with a food reserve.

Seeds of various plants. Row 1: poppy, red pepper, strawberry, apple tree, blackberry, rice, carum, Row 2: mustard, eggplant, physalis, grapes, raspberries, red rice, patchouli, Row 3: figs, lycium barbarum, beets, blueberries, golden kiwifruit, rosehip, basil, Row 4: pink pepper, tomato, radish, carrot, matthiola, dill, coriander, Row 5: black pepper, white cabbage, napa cabbage, seabuckthorn, parsley, dandelion, capsella bursa-pastoris, Row 6: cauliflower, radish, kiwifruit, grenadilla, passion fruit, melissa, tagetes erecta.
Plant ovules: Gymnosperm ovule on left, angiosperm ovule (inside ovary) on right
The inside of a Ginkgo seed, showing a well-developed embryo, nutritive tissue (megagametophyte), and a bit of the surrounding seed coat
The parts of an avocado seed (a dicot), showing the seed coat and embryo
Diagram of the internal structure of a dicot seed and embryo: (a) seed coat, (b) endosperm, (c) cotyledon, (d) hypocotyl
Diagram of a generalized dicot seed (1) versus a generalized monocot seed (2). A. Scutellum B. Cotyledon C. Hilum D. Plumule E. Radicle F. Endosperm
Comparison of monocotyledons and dicotyledons
Seed coat of pomegranate
A collection of various vegetable and herb seeds
Dandelion seeds are contained within achenes, which can be carried long distances by the wind.
The seed pod of milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)
Germinating sunflower seedlings
Microbial transmission from seed to seedling
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean or green bean) seeds are diverse in size, shape, and color.
The massive fruit of the coco de mer

Different groups of plants have other modifications, the so-called stone fruits (such as the peach) have a hardened fruit layer (the endocarp) fused to and surrounding the actual seed.

Nuts are the one-seeded, hard-shelled fruit of some plants with an indehiscent seed, such as an acorn or hazelnut.

Longitudinal section of a female flower of a squash plant (courgette), showing the ovary, ovules, pistil and petals

Fruit anatomy

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Plant anatomy of the internal structure of fruit.

Plant anatomy of the internal structure of fruit.

Longitudinal section of a female flower of a squash plant (courgette), showing the ovary, ovules, pistil and petals
Diagram of a typical drupe (peach), showing both fruit and seed
A schematic picture of an orange hesperidium
A segment of an orange that has been opened to show the pulp (juice vesicles) of the endocarp
Almond endocarp

The types of fleshy fruits are berries, pomes, and drupes.

Types of dry fruits include achenes, capsules, follicles or nuts.

Pecan

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Species of hickory native to the southern United States and northern Mexico in the region of the Mississippi River.

Species of hickory native to the southern United States and northern Mexico in the region of the Mississippi River.

An old-growth pecan tree
A gigantic pecan tree in Oklahoma
Pecan trees being irrigated in Anthony, New Mexico
A cluster of pecan fruit is exposed as hulls dry out and split open
Pecan sprouting in moist wood-chip mulch in Eastern Oklahoma
Bud
Immature pecan fruits
Ripe pecan nuts on tree
Carya illinoinensis, MHNT
Shelled and unshelled pecans
Pecan halves
Pecan pie
thumb|Pecan tree in Oklahoma loaded with fruits

The seed is an edible nut used as a snack and in various recipes, such as praline candy and pecan pie.

A pecan, like the fruit of all other members of the hickory genus, is not truly a nut, but is technically a drupe, a fruit with a single stone or pit, surrounded by a husk.

Culinary fruits

Fruit

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Seed-bearing structure in flowering plants that is formed from the ovary after flowering.

Seed-bearing structure in flowering plants that is formed from the ovary after flowering.

Culinary fruits
Caraway fruits. A common mistake is to call these and similar ones "seeds".
Pomegranate display of the exocarp (right) and seeds and edible sarcotesta (left)
An arrangement of fruits commonly thought of as culinary vegetables, including corn (maize), tomatoes, and various squash
The development sequence of a typical drupe, the nectarine (Prunus persica) over a 7.5 month period, from bud formation in early winter to fruit ripening in midsummer (see [[:File:Nectarine Fruit Development.jpg|image page]] for further information)
The parts of a flower, showing the stigma-style-ovary system.
An apple is a simple fleshy fruit. Key parts are the epicarp, or exocarp, or outer skin, (not labelled); and the mezocarp and endocarp (labelled).
Insertion point: There are 3 positions of insertion of the ovary at the base of a flower: I superior; II half-inferior; III inferior. The 'insertion point' is where the androecium parts (a), the petals (p), and the sepals (s) all converge and attach to the receptacle (r). (Ovary= gynoecium (g).)
In the noni, flowers are produced in time-sequence along the stem. It is possible to see a progression of flowering, fruit development, and fruit ripening.
Dewberry flowers. Note the multiple pistils, each of which will produce a drupelet. Each flower will become a blackberry-like aggregate fruit.
Dewberry fruit
A dry simple fruit: milkweed (Asclepias syriaca); dehiscence of the follicular fruit reveals seeds within.
Fruits of four different banana cultivars (Bananas are berries.)
Strawberry, showing achenes attached to surface. Botanically, strawberries are not berries; they are classified as an aggregate accessory fruit.
Flower of Magnolia × wieseneri showing the many pistils making up the gynoecium in the middle of the flower. The fruit of this flower is an aggregation of follicles.
Detail of the raspberry flower: there is a clustering of pistils at the center of the flower. (A pistil consists of stigma, style, and ovary.) The stigma is the apical (at the apex) nodule that receives pollen; the style is the stem-like column that extends down to the ovary, which is the basal part that contains the seed-forming ovule.
Lilium unripe capsule fruit; an aggregate fruit.
The fruit of a pineapple includes tissue from the sepals as well as the pistils of many flowers. It is a multiple-accessory fruit.
Picking blackberries in Oklahoma
Comparing fresh fruits for fiber, potassium (K), and vitamin C. Each disk-point refers to a 100 g serving of the fresh fruit named. The size of the disk represents the amount of fiber (as percentage of the recommended daily allowance, RDA) in a serving of fruit (see key at upper right). The amount of vitamin C (as percent RDA) is plotted on the x–axis and the amount of potassium (K), in mg on the y–axis. + Bananas are high in value for fiber and potassium, and oranges for fiber and vitamin C. (Apricots are highest in potassium; strawberries are rich in vitamin C.) Watermelon, providing low levels of both K and vitamin C and almost no fiber, is of least value for the three nutrients together.
Porcelain vine is usually planted for its showy, colourful berries.

In botanical usage, the term "fruit" also includes many structures that are not commonly called "fruits" in everyday language, such as nuts, bean pods, corn kernels, tomatoes, and wheat grains.

As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy (as in berries or drupes), or it may form a hard outer covering (as in nuts).

Juglandaceae

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The Juglandaceae are a plant family known as the walnut family.

The Juglandaceae are a plant family known as the walnut family.

The nine or ten genera in the family have a total of around 50 species, and include the commercially important nut-producing trees walnut (Juglans), pecan (Carya illinoinensis), and hickory (Carya).

The fruits of the Juglandaceae are often confused with drupes but are accessory fruit because the outer covering of the fruit is technically an involucre and thus not morphologically part of the carpel; this means it cannot be a drupe but is instead a drupe-like nut.

Walnuts

Walnut

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Walnuts
Inside of a walnut in growth
Three-segment walnut
Walnut shell inside its green husk
Walnuts in their shells available for sale in a supermarket in the United States
Common walnut in growth
California black walnut in growth
A three-segment shell which occurs rarely
Walnut in shell and a nutcracker utensil used to break the shell
Video of cracking a walnut
Walnuts as a snack
A large serving of shelled walnuts
Georgian snack Gozinaki made from roasted walnuts and honey
Applesauce coffee cake garnished with walnuts
Walnuts as collectibles
Muraba made from young walnuts
Artistic depiction of two walnuts

A walnut is the edible seed of a drupe of any tree of the genus Juglans (family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.

Although culinarily considered a "nut" and used as such, it is not a true botanical nut.

Hickory

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Common name for trees composing the genus Carya, which includes around 18 species.

Common name for trees composing the genus Carya, which includes around 18 species.

Roasted Carya cathayensis (Chinese hickory)
Nuts of Carya texana (black hickory)
Foliage of Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory)
Finished hickory in a cabinet
Comparison of North American Carya nuts
Ripe hickory nuts ready to fall
Autumn foliage

Hickories are temperate forest trees with pinnately compound leaves and large nuts.

Hickory nuts (Carya) and walnuts (Juglans) in the Juglandaceae family grow within an outer husk; these fruits are sometimes considered to be drupes or drupaceous nuts, rather than true botanical nuts.

Almond

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Species of tree native to Iran and surrounding countries, including the Levant.

Species of tree native to Iran and surrounding countries, including the Levant.

Almond in shell, shell cracked open, unshelled and blanched seed
Occasionally two seeds occur
Persian miniature depiction of the almond harvest at Qand-i Badam, Fergana Valley (16th century)
Almond tree with blossoming flowers, Valley of Elah, Israel
Flowering (sweet) almond tree
Blossoming of bitter almond tree
Almond cream cake covered in slivered almonds
Colomba di Pasqua, traditional Italian Easter bread
Danish cream cake covered with marzipan
Almond oil
Green almonds
Almond shell
Blanched almonds
A grove of almond trees
Almond blossoms
Young almond fruit
Mature almond fruit
An almond shaker before and during a harvest of a tree

The fruit of the almond is a drupe, consisting of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed, which is not a true nut.

Pistachio

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Small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East.

Small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East.

Leaves of a pistachio tree in Syria.
Dormant Kerman pistachio trees in California.
Pistachio fruit, Torbat-e Heydarieh, Razavi Khorasan, Iran
Pistachio nuts from Iran
Pistachio Turkish delight

The tree produces seeds that are widely consumed as food.

The fruit is a drupe, containing an elongated seed, which is the edible portion.