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Gypsum

gypsiferouscalcium sulfate dihydrategypseous
Drywall (also known as plasterboard, wallboard, sheet rock, gypsum board, buster board, custard board, rusted sword, or gypsum panel) is a panel made of calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum), with or without additives, typically extruded between thick sheets of facer and backer paper, used in the construction of interior walls and ceilings.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O. It is widely mined and is used as a fertilizer and as the main constituent in many forms of plaster, blackboard/sidewalk chalk, and drywall.

USG Corporation

U.S. GypsumUnited States GypsumUnited States Gypsum Corporation
In 1910 United States Gypsum Corporation bought Sackett Plaster Board Company and by 1917 introduced Sheetrock.
USG Corporation, also known as United States Gypsum Corporation, is an American company which manufactures construction materials, most notably drywall and joint compound.

BPB plc

British GypsumBPBBritish Plaster Board
In 2002 the European Commission imposed fines totaling €420 million on the companies Lafarge, BPB, Knauf and Gyproc Benelux, which had operated a cartel on the market which affected 80% of consumers in France, the UK, Germany and the Benelux countries.
It is the world's largest manufacturer of plasterboard.

Lath

lathslatillalattice work
Gypsum lath was an early substrate for plaster.
This includes metal wire mesh or expanded metal that is applied to a wood or metal framework as matrix over which stucco or plaster is applied, as well as wallboard products called gypsum or rock lath.

Asbestos

asbestos fibersblue asbestosamphibole asbestos
The plaster is mixed with fiber (typically paper, fiberglass, asbestos, or a combination of these materials), plasticizer, foaming agent, and various additives that can reduce mildew, flammability, and water absorption.

Knauf

Knauf RacingKnauf Racing TeamKnauf Gips KG
In 2002 the European Commission imposed fines totaling €420 million on the companies Lafarge, BPB, Knauf and Gyproc Benelux, which had operated a cartel on the market which affected 80% of consumers in France, the UK, Germany and the Benelux countries.
The company is a producer of building materials and construction systems comprising construction materials for drywall construction, plasterboard, cement boards, mineral fibre acoustic boards, dry mortars with gypsum for internal plaster and cement-based external plaster and insulating materials; glass wool, stone wool and other insulation materials under the company Knauf Insulation.

Plasticizer

plasticizersplasticiserplasticisers
The plaster is mixed with fiber (typically paper, fiberglass, asbestos, or a combination of these materials), plasticizer, foaming agent, and various additives that can reduce mildew, flammability, and water absorption. Organic dispersants/plasticisers are used so the slurry will flow during manufacture, and to reduce the water and hence the drying time. The plaster is mixed with fibre (typically paper and/or fibreglass), plasticizer, foaming agent, finely ground gypsum crystal as an accelerator, EDTA, starch or other chelate as a retarder, various additives that may decrease mildew and increase fire resistance, and wax emulsion or silanes for lower water absorption.
Plasticizers can be added to wallboard stucco mixtures to improve workability.

Lath and plaster

plaster on lathlath-and-plasterplaster and lath
In the mid-20th century, drywall construction became prevalent in North America as a time and labor saving alternative to traditional lath and plaster.
Lath and plaster largely fell out of favour in the U.K. after the introduction of plasterboard in the 1930s.

Plaster

plaster of Parisgypsum plasterplaster-of-Paris
A wallboard panel consists of a layer of gypsum plaster sandwiched between two layers of paper.
Today this building method has been partly replaced with drywall, also composed mostly of gypsum plaster.

Drywall mechanic

drywall installerdrywallers
As an alternative to a week-long plaster application, an entire house can be drywalled in one or two days by two experienced drywallers, and drywall is easy enough to use that it can be installed by many amateur home carpenters.
In addition, they also install x-ray shielding, thermal and sound insulation and a variety of drywall panels and metal and vinyl trims.

Wall

Partition wallpartitionwalls
Drywall is then fixed to the wall structure with nails or drywall screws and often glue.
Framed walls most often have three or more separate components: the structural elements (such as 2×4 studs in a house wall), insulation, and finish elements or surfaces (such as drywall or panelling).

Dispersant

dispersantsdispersing agentbio-dispersant
Organic dispersants/plasticisers are used so the slurry will flow during manufacture, and to reduce the water and hence the drying time.
A dispersant/plasticizer is added to the gypsum wallboard slurry to reduce the amount of water used.

T-square

normal
Drywall is cut to size, using a large T-square, by scoring the paper on the finished side (usually white) with a utility knife, breaking the sheet along the cut, and cutting the paper backing.
T-squares are also used to measure and cut drywall.

Keyhole saw

drywall sawPad saw
Small features such as holes for outlets and light switches are usually cut using a keyhole saw or a small high-speed bit in a rotary tool.
One such modification being a sharpened point at the tip of the blade which can be pushed or jabbed through soft materials such as drywall without drilling a hole for the blade.

Taping knife

Wider-bladed knives
After the sheets are secured to the wall studs or ceiling joists, the installer conceals the seams between drywall sheets with 'joint tape' and several layers of 'joint compound' (sometimes called 'mud'), typically spread with a taping knife or putty knife.
A taping knife or joint knife is a drywall tool with a wide blade for spreading joint compound, also known as "mud".

Calcium sulfate

calcium sulphateCaSO 4 Drierite
Drywall (also known as plasterboard, wallboard, sheet rock, gypsum board, buster board, custard board, rusted sword, or gypsum panel) is a panel made of calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum), with or without additives, typically extruded between thick sheets of facer and backer paper, used in the construction of interior walls and ceilings.
The endothermic property of this reaction is relevant to the performance of drywall, conferring fire resistance to residential and other structures.

Starch

starcheswheat starchrice starch
The plaster is mixed with fibre (typically paper and/or fibreglass), plasticizer, foaming agent, finely ground gypsum crystal as an accelerator, EDTA, starch or other chelate as a retarder, various additives that may decrease mildew and increase fire resistance, and wax emulsion or silanes for lower water absorption.
Another large non-food starch application is in the construction industry, where starch is used in the gypsum wall board manufacturing process.

Putty

masticputtiesplastic body filler
Veneering uses a slightly different specialized setting compound ("finish plaster") that contains gypsum and lime putty.
Putties can also be made intumescent, in which case they are used for firestopping as well as for padding of electrical outlet boxes in fire-resistance rated drywall assemblies.

Hydrogen sulfide

hydrogen sulphideH 2 SStink damp
Volatile sulphur compounds, including hydrogen sulphide, have been detected as emissions from the imported drywall and may be linked to health problems.
These bacteria cannot survive in air but the moist, warm, anaerobic conditions of buried waste that contains a high source of carbon – in inert landfills, paper and glue used in the fabrication of products such as plasterboard can provide a rich source of carbon – is an excellent environment for the formation of hydrogen sulfide.

Scrim and sarking

In both countries, plasterboard has become a widely used replacement for scrim and sarking walls in the renovation of 19th- and early 20th-century buildings.
For these reasons, home renovation will often see it replaced with gypsum-based wallboards.

Sound transmission class

Mass-loaded vinylSound Transmission Loss
Sound transmission class (STC) ratings can be increased from 33 for an ordinary stud-wall to as high as 59 with double 1/2 in drywall on both sides of a wood stud wall with resilient channels on one side and fiberglass batt insulation between the studs.
Interior walls with 1 sheet of 1/2″ (13 mm) gypsum wallboard (drywall) on either side of 2x4 (90 mm) wood studs spaced 16" (406 mm) on-center with fiberglass insulation filling each stud cavity have an STC of about 33. When asked to rate their acoustical performance, people often describe these walls as "paper thin." They offer little in the way of privacy. Double stud partition walls are typically constructed with varying gypsum wallboard panel layers attached to both sides of double 2x4 (90 mm) wood studs spaced 16" (406 mm) on-center and separated by a 1" (25 mm) airspace. These walls vary in sound isolation performance from the mid STC-40s into the high STC-60s depending on the presence of insulation and the gypsum wallboard type and quantity. Commercial buildings are typically constructed using steel studs of varying widths, gauges, and on-center spacings. Each of these framing characteristics have an effect on the sound isolation of the partition to varying degrees.

Blocking (construction)

blocking
Drywall fasteners are used for supporting interior drywall corners and replacing the non-structural wood or metal blocking that traditionally was used to install drywall.
Once drywall, or any other material, covers the wall it can be difficult to find 2x4 studs for attachment, and the position of nails and screws must be adjusted to stud location.

Putty knife

Putty KnivesPaint scraperputty
After the sheets are secured to the wall studs or ceiling joists, the installer conceals the seams between drywall sheets with 'joint tape' and several layers of 'joint compound' (sometimes called 'mud'), typically spread with a taping knife or putty knife.
Widths from 11⁄4" to 5" or 6" are commonly available. Wider-bladed knives up to about 12" are used for sheet rocking.

Cement board

backer board
It is for these reasons that greenboard and ideally cement board are used for rooms expected to have high humidity, primarily kitchens, bathrooms, and laundry rooms.

Penetrant (mechanical, electrical, or structural)

penetrantservicepenetrants
Importantly, penetrants do not follow the deflection movement of the drywall assemblies they penetrate.
In the case of drywall assemblies, the opening size is determined by the drywall contractor, unless the mechanical and electrical trades are contractually obliged to provide sleeving here as well, with proper fastening methods that are in conformance with the certification listing.