Dualistic cosmology

dualismdualisticdualistdualitytheistic dualismDualistsduotheisticdualistic beliefsditheisticdualist philosophy
Dualism in cosmology is the moral or spiritual belief that two fundamental concepts exist, which often oppose each other.wikipedia
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Yin and yang

yin-yangyinyang
The opposition and combination of the universe's two basic principles of yin and yang is a large part of Chinese philosophy, and is an important feature of Taoism.
In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang ( and ; undefined yīnyáng, lit. "dark-bright", "negative-positive") is a concept of dualism in ancient Chinese philosophy, describing how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.

Demiurge

YaldabaothIaldabaothdemiurgic
These motifs conceive the world as being created, organized, or influenced by two demiurges, culture heroes, or other mythological beings, who either compete with each other or have a complementary function in creating, arranging or influencing the world.
In the arch-dualist ideology of the various Gnostic systems, the material universe is evil, while the non-material world is good.

Zoroastrianism

ZoroastrianZoroastriansZoroastrian religion
For example, Mazdaism (Mazdean Zoroastrianism) is both dualistic and monotheistic (but not monist by definition) since in that philosophy God—the Creator—is purely good, and the antithesis—which is also uncreated–is an absolute one. In the original conception of Zoroastrianism, for example, Ahura Mazda was the spirit of ultimate good, while Ahriman (Angra Mainyu) was the spirit of ultimate evil.
It is centered in a dualistic cosmology of good and evil and an eschatology predicting the ultimate conquest of evil with theological elements of henotheism, monotheism/monism, and polytheism.

Manichaeism

ManichaeanManichaeansManichean
Zurvanism (Zurvanite Zoroastrianism), Manichaeism, and Mandaeism are representative of dualistic and monist philosophies since each has a supreme and transcendental First Principle from which the two equal-but-opposite entities then emanate.
Manichaeism taught an elaborate dualistic cosmology describing the struggle between a good, spiritual world of light, and an evil, material world of darkness.

Mandaeism

MandaeanMandaeansMandean
Zurvanism (Zurvanite Zoroastrianism), Manichaeism, and Mandaeism are representative of dualistic and monist philosophies since each has a supreme and transcendental First Principle from which the two equal-but-opposite entities then emanate.
Mandaeism or Mandaeanism, also known as Sabaeanism, is a monotheistic and gnostic religion with a strongly dualistic cosmology.

Good and evil

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Personal dualism is even more distinct in the beliefs of later religions.
In cultures with Manichaean and Abrahamic religious influence, evil is usually perceived as the dualistic antagonistic opposite of good, in which good should prevail and evil should be defeated.

Satan

the DevilDevilLucifer
The religious dualism of Christianity between good and evil is not a perfect dualism as God (good) will inevitably destroy Satan (evil).
During the intertestamental period, possibly due to influence from the Zoroastrian figure of Angra Mainyu, the satan developed into a malevolent entity with abhorrent qualities in dualistic opposition to God.

Gnosticism

GnosticGnosticsGnostic Christianity
This is also true for the lesser-known Christian gnostic religions, such as Bogomils, Catharism, and so on. The dualism between God and Creation has existed as a central belief in multiple historical sects and traditions of Christianity, including Marcionism, Catharism, Paulicianism, and Gnostic Christianity.
Gnostic systems postulate a dualism between God and the world, varying from the "radical dualist" systems of Manichaeism to the "mitigated dualism" of classic gnostic movements.

Chukchi people

ChukchiChukchisChuchkis
In some cases, such as among the Chukchi, the beings collaborate rather than competing, and contribute to the creation in a coequal way.
Some of Chukchi myths reveal a dualistic cosmology.

Wiccan views of divinity

Goddessdivine coupleduotheistic theological system
This is centered on the worship of a divine couple, the Moon Goddess and the Horned God, who are regarded as lovers.
Wiccan views of divinity are generally theistic, and revolve around a Goddess and a Horned God, thereby being generally dualistic.

Wicca

WiccanWiccansEclectic Wicca
One well-known example of a bitheistic or duotheistic theology based on gender polarity is found in the neopagan religion of Wicca.
Wicca is typically duotheistic, worshipping a Goddess and a God.

Marcionism

MarcionitesMarcioniteMarcionist
Marcionism, an early Christian sect, held that the Old and New Testaments were the work of two opposing gods: both were First Principles, but of different religions. The dualism between God and Creation has existed as a central belief in multiple historical sects and traditions of Christianity, including Marcionism, Catharism, Paulicianism, and Gnostic Christianity.
Marcionism was an Early Christian dualist belief system that originated in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope in Rome around the year 144.

Monotheism

monotheisticmonotheistmonotheists
Like ditheism/bitheism (see below), moral dualism does not imply the absence of monist or monotheistic principles.
The Qur'an rejects binary modes of thinking such as the idea of a duality of God by arguing that both good and evil generate from God's creative act.

Horned God

Great horned hunter godhornedKarnayna
This is centered on the worship of a divine couple, the Moon Goddess and the Horned God, who are regarded as lovers.
In traditional Wicca (British Traditional Wicca), he is generally regarded as a dualistic god of twofold aspects: bright and dark, night and day, summer and winter, the Oak King and the Holly King.

Neoplatonism and Christianity

NeoplatonismChristian NeoplatonismChristian Platonism
Early Christian dualism is largely based on Platonic Dualism (See: Neoplatonism and Christianity).
Certain central tenets of Neoplatonism served as a philosophical interim for the Christian theologian Augustine of Hippo on his journey from dualistic Manichaeism to Christianity.

Albigensian Crusade

crusadeCathar Crusadecrusade against the Albigensians
The Albigensian Crusade was initiated by Pope Innocent III in 1208 to remove the Cathars from Languedoc in France, where they were known as Albigesians.
Their theology, neo-Gnostic in many ways, was basically dualist.

Modern Paganism

NeopaganNeopaganismneo-pagan
One well-known example of a bitheistic or duotheistic theology based on gender polarity is found in the neopagan religion of Wicca.
In Wicca, male and female deities are typically balanced out in a form of duotheism.

Theodicy

theodiciesdivine justicejustifies
theodicy).
For theodicies of suffering, Weber argued that three different kinds of theodicy emerged—predestination, dualism, and karma—all of which attempt to satisfy the human need for meaning, and he believed that the quest for meaning, when considered in light of suffering, becomes the problem of suffering.

Bogomilism

BogomilsBogomilBogumils
This is also true for the lesser-known Christian gnostic religions, such as Bogomils, Catharism, and so on.
Bogomilism (Богомилство; Macedonian: Богомилство; Bogumilstvo / Богумилство) was a Christian neo-Gnostic or dualist sect founded in the First Bulgarian Empire by the priest Bogomil during the reign of Tsar Peter I in the 10th century.

Catharism

CatharsCatharAlbigensians
This is also true for the lesser-known Christian gnostic religions, such as Bogomils, Catharism, and so on. The dualism between God and Creation has existed as a central belief in multiple historical sects and traditions of Christianity, including Marcionism, Catharism, Paulicianism, and Gnostic Christianity.
Catharism (from the Greek: καθαροί, katharoi, "the pure [ones]") was a Christian dualist or Gnostic revival movement that thrived in some areas of Southern Europe, particularly what is now northern Italy and southern France, between the 12th and 14th centuries.

Paulicianism

PauliciansPaulicianPaulicianists
The dualism between God and Creation has existed as a central belief in multiple historical sects and traditions of Christianity, including Marcionism, Catharism, Paulicianism, and Gnostic Christianity.
He studied the Gospels and Epistles, combined dualistic and Christian doctrines and, upon the basis of the former, vigorously opposed the formalism of the church.

Zurvanism

ZurvanZurvaniteAesthetic Zurvanism
Zurvanism (Zurvanite Zoroastrianism), Manichaeism, and Mandaeism are representative of dualistic and monist philosophies since each has a supreme and transcendental First Principle from which the two equal-but-opposite entities then emanate.
This was an obvious usurpation of Zoroastrian dualism, a sacrilege against the moral preeminence of Ahura Mazda.

Twins in mythology

believed to be twinstwin brothers
They may be often believed to be twins or at least brothers.
* Dualistic cosmology

Ahriman

Angra MainyuAhrimanesAhreman
In the original conception of Zoroastrianism, for example, Ahura Mazda was the spirit of ultimate good, while Ahriman (Angra Mainyu) was the spirit of ultimate evil.
In 1862, Martin Haug proposed a new reconstruction of what he believed was Zoroaster's original monotheistic teaching, as expressed in the Gathas – a teaching which he believed had been corrupted by later Zoroastrian dualistic tradition as expressed in post-Gathic scripture and in the texts of tradition.

Indian philosophy

philosophyIndianIndian philosopher
The Dvaita Vedanta school of Indian philosophy espouses a dualism between God and the universe by theorizing the existence of two separate realities.
The Vedanta school is further divided into six sub-schools: Advaita (monism/nondualism), also includes the concept of Ajativada, Visishtadvaita (monism of the qualified whole), Dvaita (dualism), Dvaitadvaita (dualism-nondualism), Suddhadvaita, and Achintya Bheda Abheda schools.