Duchenne de Boulogne

Guillaume DuchenneDuchenneGuillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne de BoulogneBenjamin DuchenneDr DuchenneGuillame Benjamin Amand DuchenneGuillaume Benjamin Amand DuchenneGuillaume-Benjamin Duchenne de BoulogneGuillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne
Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne (de Boulogne) (September 17, 1806 in Boulogne-sur-Mer – September 15, 1875 in Paris) was a French neurologist who revived Galvani's research and greatly advanced the science of electrophysiology.wikipedia
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Neurology

neurologistneurologicalneurologists
Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne (de Boulogne) (September 17, 1806 in Boulogne-sur-Mer – September 15, 1875 in Paris) was a French neurologist who revived Galvani's research and greatly advanced the science of electrophysiology. The era of modern neurology developed from Duchenne's understanding of neural pathways and his diagnostic innovations including deep tissue biopsy, nerve conduction tests (NCS), and clinical photography.
The academic discipline began between the 15th and 16th centuries with the work and research of many neurologists such as Thomas Willis, Robert Whytt, Matthew Baillie, Charles Bell, Moritz Heinrich Romberg, Duchenne de Boulogne, William A. Hammond, Jean-Martin Charcot, and John Hughlings Jackson.

Jean-Martin Charcot

CharcotJean Martin CharcotJean Charcot
Neurology did not exist in France before Duchenne and although many medical historians regard Jean-Martin Charcot as the father of the discipline, Charcot owed much to Duchenne, often acknowledging him as "mon maître en neurologie" (my teacher in neurology).
Charcot was a part of the French neurological tradition and studied under, and greatly revered, Duchenne de Boulogne.

Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine

unmasking of the facial mechanisms
Duchenne's monograph, the Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine – also illustrated prominently by his photographs – was the first study on the physiology of emotion and was highly influential on Darwin's work on human evolution and emotional expression.
ou, Analyse électro-physiologique de l'expression des passions des arts plastiques.' is a monograph on the muscles of facial expression, researched and written by Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne de Boulogne, (1806–75).

Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital

SalpêtrièreSalpêtrière HospitalHôpital de la Pitié
This extraordinary range of activities (mostly in the Salpêtrière) was achieved against the background of a troubled personal life and a generally indifferent medical and scientific establishment.
A regular visitor to the Salpêtrière from 1842 till his death more than thirty years later was Guillaume-Benjamin Duchenne de Boulogne (1806–1875).

Boulogne-sur-Mer

BoulogneGesoriacumBononia
Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne (de Boulogne) (September 17, 1806 in Boulogne-sur-Mer – September 15, 1875 in Paris) was a French neurologist who revived Galvani's research and greatly advanced the science of electrophysiology.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

DuchenneDuchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
His greatest contributions were made in the myopathies that came to immortalize his name, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne-Aran spinal muscular atrophy, Duchenne-Erb paralysis, Duchenne's disease (Tabes dorsalis), and Duchenne's paralysis (Progressive bulbar palsy).
However, DMD is named after the French neurologist Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne (1806–1875), who in the 1861 edition of his book Paraplegie hypertrophique de l'enfance de cause cerebrale, described and detailed the case of a boy who had this condition.

Electrophysiology

electrophysiologicalelectrophysiologistelectrophysiologic
Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne (de Boulogne) (September 17, 1806 in Boulogne-sur-Mer – September 15, 1875 in Paris) was a French neurologist who revived Galvani's research and greatly advanced the science of electrophysiology.
Scientists such as Duchenne de Boulogne (1806–1875) and Nathaniel A. Buchwald (1924–2006) are considered to have greatly advanced the field of neurophysiology, enabling its clinical applications.

Electrotherapy

electro-therapeuticsBio-electric stimulation therapyElectromagnetic therapy
In 1855 he formalized the diagnostic principles of electrophysiology and introduced electrotherapy in a textbook titled, De l'electrisation localisée et de son application à la physiologie, à la pathologie et à la thérapeutique. He is counted as one of the developers of electro-physiology and electro-therapeutics, and he also showed that smiles resulting from true happiness not only utilize the muscles of the mouth but also those of the eyes: such "genuine" smiles are known as Duchenne smiles in his honor.
In 1856 Guillaume Duchenne announced that alternating was superior to direct current for electrotherapeutic triggering of muscle contractions.

Smile

smilingDuchenne smileSmiles
He is counted as one of the developers of electro-physiology and electro-therapeutics, and he also showed that smiles resulting from true happiness not only utilize the muscles of the mouth but also those of the eyes: such "genuine" smiles are known as Duchenne smiles in his honor.
While conducting research on the physiology of facial expressions in the mid-19th century, French neurologist Guillaume Duchenne identified two distinct types of smiles.

The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals

The Expression of Emotions in Man and AnimalsEmotionsExpression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals written, in part, as a refutation of Sir Charles Bell's theologically doctrinaire physiognomy, was published in 1872.
Amongst the innovations with this book are Darwin's circulation of a questionnaire (probably inspired by his cousin, Francis Galton) during his preparatory research; simple psychology experiments on the recognition of emotions with his friends and family; and (borrowing from Duchenne de Boulogne, a physician at the Salpêtrière) the use of photographs in his presentation of scientific information.

James Crichton-Browne

Sir James Crichton-Browne
It is noteworthy, also, that Darwin lent his copy of Duchenne's book to the British psychiatrist James Crichton-Browne in 1869, that Crichton-Browne seems to have mislaid the book for a year or so (in the West Riding lunatic asylum in Wakefield, Yorkshire - see the Darwin Correspondence Project, Letter 7220) and that - in 1872 - Crichton-Browne invited Sir David Ferrier to his asylum laboratory to undertake experiments involving the electrical stimulation of motor centres in the brain.
He was one of Charles Darwin's major collaborators – on The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872) – and, like Duchenne de Boulogne (at the Salpêtrière in Paris) and Hugh Welch Diamond in Surrey, was a pioneer of neuropsychiatric photography.

Progressive muscular atrophy

Duchenne-Aran spinal muscular atrophyProgressive spinal muscular atrophyAran-Duchenne spinal muscular atrophy
His greatest contributions were made in the myopathies that came to immortalize his name, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne-Aran spinal muscular atrophy, Duchenne-Erb paralysis, Duchenne's disease (Tabes dorsalis), and Duchenne's paralysis (Progressive bulbar palsy).
Contemporary neurologist Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne de Boulogne also claimed to have described the condition 1 year earlier, although the written report was never found.

Erb's palsy

Erb-Duchenne palsyDuchenne-Erb paralysisErb–Duchenne palsy
His greatest contributions were made in the myopathies that came to immortalize his name, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne-Aran spinal muscular atrophy, Duchenne-Erb paralysis, Duchenne's disease (Tabes dorsalis), and Duchenne's paralysis (Progressive bulbar palsy).
In 1861, Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne coined the term "obstetric palsy of the brachial plexus" after analyzing four infants with paralysis of identical muscles in the arm and shoulder, after publishing his initial findings in 1855.

Progressive bulbar palsy

bulbar paralysisprogressive bulbar paralysisbulbar palsy, progressive
His greatest contributions were made in the myopathies that came to immortalize his name, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne-Aran spinal muscular atrophy, Duchenne-Erb paralysis, Duchenne's disease (Tabes dorsalis), and Duchenne's paralysis (Progressive bulbar palsy).
The disease was first recognized by French neurologist, Guillaume Duchenne in 1860 and termed, “labioglossolaryngeal paralysis”.

Muscular dystrophy

Muscular dystrophiesdystrophymuscle dystrophy
In the following decade, French neurologist Guillaume Duchenne gave a comprehensive account of the most common and severe form of the disease, which now carries his name—Duchenne MD.

Luigi Galvani

GalvaniGalvani, LuigiAloysius Galvani
Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne (de Boulogne) (September 17, 1806 in Boulogne-sur-Mer – September 15, 1875 in Paris) was a French neurologist who revived Galvani's research and greatly advanced the science of electrophysiology.

Nerve conduction study

nerve conduction studiesconduction blockconduction velocity
The era of modern neurology developed from Duchenne's understanding of neural pathways and his diagnostic innovations including deep tissue biopsy, nerve conduction tests (NCS), and clinical photography.

Joseph Collins (neurologist)

Joseph CollinsCollinsDr. Joseph Collins (1866–1950)
The American neurologist Dr. Joseph Collins (1866–1950) wrote that Duchenne found neurology, "a sprawling infant of unknown parentage which he succored to a lusty youth."

Tabes dorsalis

tabeslocomotor ataxiathird-stage chronic syphilis
His greatest contributions were made in the myopathies that came to immortalize his name, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne-Aran spinal muscular atrophy, Duchenne-Erb paralysis, Duchenne's disease (Tabes dorsalis), and Duchenne's paralysis (Progressive bulbar palsy).

Biopsy

biopsiestissue biopsybiopsied
He was the first clinician to practise muscle biopsy, with an invention he called "l'emporte-pièce" (Duchenne's trocar).

Trocar

trocarstrocars for draining abscessneedle
He was the first clinician to practise muscle biopsy, with an invention he called "l'emporte-pièce" (Duchenne's trocar).

University of Douai

DouaiDouai Universityuniversity of Douay
In opposition to his father's wishes that he become a sailor, and driven by a fascination with science, Duchenne enrolled at the University of Douai where he received his Baccalauréat at the age of 19.

Baccalauréat

baccalaureatebaccalaureatFrench Baccalaureate
In opposition to his father's wishes that he become a sailor, and driven by a fascination with science, Duchenne enrolled at the University of Douai where he received his Baccalauréat at the age of 19.

René Laennec

LaennecRene LaennecRené-Théophile-Hyacinthe Laennec
He then trained under a number of distinguished Paris physicians including René-Théophile-Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781–1826) and Baron Guillaume Dupuytren (1777–1835) before returning to Boulogne and setting up in practice there.

Guillaume Dupuytren

DupuytrenBaron Guillaume DupuytrenBaron Dupuytren
He then trained under a number of distinguished Paris physicians including René-Théophile-Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781–1826) and Baron Guillaume Dupuytren (1777–1835) before returning to Boulogne and setting up in practice there.